Presentation on theme: "Flame retardants in electronics: Are halogen-free alternatives the future? Stephanie Dalquist 14 May 2002."— Presentation transcript:
Flame retardants in electronics: Are halogen-free alternatives the future? Stephanie Dalquist 14 May 2002
Introduction of flame retardants Consumer use since 1930’s 300,000 tons of brominated FR in 1998 –6,000 tons alone in European household electronics Most contain bromine or phosphorus Newer organic alternatives –Less effective and more expensive –More environmentally friendly? –Fewer health risks?
Why flame retardants? Significant fire damage worldwide –12.9 billion in the US annually (1% GDP) –425,000 fire incidents –4,000 deaths and 26,000 injuries Delayed or suppressed ignition –Reduce damage, prevent spread –Slow evolution of toxic gases, factor in 80% of deaths Save 290 lives in the US annually
Driving forces of change Legislative –European Union eliminates PBDE and PBB by 2004, all brominated retardants by 2008 –Japan considers legislation Environmental and worker concerns –Sweden’s TCO –Large buyer guidelines Public Perception –Dioxins and furans in human blood, breast milk –Increased value seen in green products
Types of flame retardants Reactive –Chemically bound to polymer Cannot evaporate, migrate through polymer Alter polymer properties, increasing cost TBBA Additive –Small molecules in PVC, PS, polyester More effective More evaporation, can penetrate tissue
Toxicity of flame retardants PBDE decompose to PBDD, PBDF –Public fear of dioxins and furans TBBA fairly safe –Low acute toxicity –Dioxins and furans in rare circumstances Increasing MSW from 8% to 27%, no changes At low temperatures, yields up to 10% Halogen-free compounds decompose to relatively benign aromatics
Performance of halogen-free retardants Available for all key electronics applications Laminates for PWBs –Pass peel strength, pressure cooker tests –Few compare in surface insulation resistance Additive loading up to 30% to meet V0 –Brominated loading around 6-10% –Alter polymer curing kinetics –Reduce peel strength –Increase moisture adsorption –Reduce electrical properties
Performance of halogen-free retardants Substitution occurs regardless –Voluntary or as a result of legislation –Unable to meet V0 standards –Requires costly changes to manufacturing processes –Challenges established product reliability
Conclusions European Union has made the right move by phasing out PBDE Push to eliminate all halogenated FRs is extreme, based on available data Halogen-free technology not comparable for fire safety Substitution with safer FRs like TBBA until new FRs fully developed
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