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UNDP Approach to Adaptation

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Presentation on theme: "UNDP Approach to Adaptation"— Presentation transcript:

0 Climate Change and Land Degradation - Arusha
UNDP-GEF Adaptation Climate Change and Land Degradation - Arusha Nyawira Muthui December 2006

1 UNDP Approach to Adaptation
Adaptation Project Portfolio Presented on behalf of the UNDP-GEF Adaptation Team

2 Bo Lim – UNDP-GEF Adaptation Unit Climate Change Adaptation UNDP-GEF
Further Information Contact: Bo Lim – UNDP-GEF Adaptation Unit Climate Change Adaptation UNDP-GEF

3 Defining Adaptation – Doing Development Differently
“Adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effect, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities.” (IPCC 2001) “Practical steps to protect countries and communities from the likely disruption and damage that will result from effects of climate change.” (UNFCCC website, 2006) “A process by which strategies to moderate, cope with and take advantage of the consequences of climatic events are enhanced, developed, and implemented” (UNDP 2005)

4 GEF Adaptation Fund Pilot or demonstration projects to integrate adaptation into national policy Must meet global environmental objectives and have development benefits Adaptation within climate change, biodiversity, international waters and land degradation projects Operational since July 2004

5 Adaptation in LD Within Land Degradation Cluster adaptation is seen achieved through mainstreaming practices to climate proof Sustainable Land Management Building adaptive capacity to reduce communities, economies and ecosystem vulnerability to negative impacts of climate change In practice, this means Changing existing policies and practices Adopting new policies and practices so as to secure MDGs in the face of climate change and its associated impacts

6 UNDP-GEF Principles of Adaptation
Helping developing countries to adapt to climate change impacts is central to UNDP core mandate for promoting development and poverty reduction across the globe. UNDP provides several services to help programme countries to access adaptation funds: helping them to evaluate adaptation options, identify promising investment opportunities, and ensure timely and cost effective delivery of projects.

7 UNDP-GEF Adaptation Principles
Adaptation activities must further the achievement of the MDGs Adaptation activities must be development focused The starting point for developing national responses is strengthening adaptive capacity to reduce community and ecosystem vulnerability to negative impacts of CC Stakeholder involvement and public participation are key UNDP’s policy and technical guidance should be leveraged Leverage UNDP-GEF programming by building on NCs and NAPAs

8 GEF Adaptation Funds

9 Types of adaptation funds
The Strategic Priority on Adaptation (SPA) Financed by the GEF Trust Fund: ecosystem/focal area focused fund. The goal - to ensure that climate change concerns are incorporated in the management o f ecosystems through GEF focal area projects.

10 Type of Adaptation Fund
The Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) Financed by additional voluntary contributions channelled through GEF A development -focused fund designed specifically for addressing short or long term adaptation measures to climate change in the poorest countries.

11 Types of Adaptation Funds
The Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF): Financed by additional voluntary contributions channelled through GEF a development -focused fund concerned primarily with long term activities, programmes and measures in the development sectors that are most affected by global climate change.

12 Adaptation Policy Framework (APF)
APF has been prepared by the UNDP/GEF Capacity Development and Adaptation Cluster as the Cornerstone of UNDP’s Strategy in Adaptation APF will assist in the process of incorporating adaptation concerns into national strategies Four-phased Approach

13 Four Phases of the UNDP-GEF Adaptation Strategy
2012 Phase IV: Implementation 2010 Phase III: National Assessments 2008 Phase Ib: Methodological Improvement & Dissemination Phase II: Regional Assessments 2006 2004 Phase 1a: Methodological Development 2002 Activities

14 APF - Key Innovations Links current with future climate variations
If future climate change brings both increased variability and directional shifts, understanding current climate-related extreme events and responses will provide basis for future responses (and surprises) Uses the concept of adaptation or development baseline to build on current experience to cope with future climate Emphasizes adaptive capacity…….. as the potential of a system to adjust characteristics or behaviour, to cope with climate change, including variability

15 APF Adaptation Approaches
APF Approach HAZARD-BASED Top-down, scenario-driven, formal risk mapping for hazards VULNERABILITY-BASED Bottom-up: no mapping or scenarios, vulnerability combined with general hazard information ADAPTIVE CAPACITY Bottom-up: providing options for adapting POLICY-BASED Top-down/bottom-up: adaptation via policy intervention Project Outcome Examples Ameliorated impacts in high-risk areas, early warning, response measures Reduced vulnerability of population and high-risk groups: improve access, livelihoods, security Enhanced adaptive capacity - better preparedness, awareness, empowerment, livelihood options “Adaptation friendly” policies, programmes, strategies, that discourage high-risk or maladaptive behavior

16 Climate Risks to MDGs MDGs CLIMATE RISKS
MDG 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Depleted livelihood assets, reduced economic growth, and undermined food security. MDG 2: Achieve universal primary education Reduced ability of children to participate in full-time education by loss of infrastructure, loss of livelihoods (forcing children to work), and displaced families. MDG 3: Promote gender equality and empower women Additional burdens on women's health and limited time to participate in decision-making and income-generating activities. MDGs 4, 5 and 6: Reduce child mortality; improve maternal health; combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases availability of potable water. Greater prevalence of vector- and water-borne diseases, and heat-related mortality, declining food security, maternal health, and availability of potable water MDG 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Negatively impacted natural resources and productive ecosystems

17 Lessons - Adaptation Learning Mechanism (ALM)
Notes: The ALM aims to capture the current state of knowledge on planning, implementing, and integrating adaptation in development; identify gaps in adaptation knowledge by drawing lessons from adaptation portfolio reviews; and develop responses to these knowledge gaps to support long-term adaptation planning by the GEF and other adaptation stakeholders. A key activity of the project will be to provide tools for ongoing learning through an online knowledge base and information sharing platform. Finally, outreach will ensure that lessons learned about integrating adaptation in development planning are disseminated at multiple scales. The ALM will build on the successes of past knowledge management projects at GEF and create a highly relevant set of tools for learning from IA adaptation experience to date. This knowledge will be shared with users in each UNDP region, setting into motion a platform for continued learning as adaptation becomes increasingly important in the future. The Goal of the Adaptation Learning Mechanism (ALM) is to improve the effective integration of adaptation to climate change within development planning of the GEF, Implementing Agencies, and non-Annex I countries. The Objective of the project is to provide tools and establish a learning platform (knowledge base) for integrating adaptation to climate change within the development planning of the GEF, IAs and non-Annex 1 countries. The ALM is a global knowledge management project for adaptation Lessons - Adaptation Learning Mechanism (ALM) Knowledge base for adaptation established Adaptation projects reviewed Gaps in knowledge and practice identified Gaps in knowledge addressed Good practice identified Learning and knowledge shared Regional approach taken

18 Phase II: Regional Pilot Projects
Scope: watershed management, disaster risk management, food security, health Other Phase II Projects: Central America, Mexico, and Cuba Maghreb: Integrated Watershed Mgt water supply and aquifers Central America, Mexico, and Cuba: APF Climate change and Human Health (with WHO); Adaptation Learning Mechanism Community Based Adaptation (with SGP) Asia and Andean region: Climate Change and Flood Risk Reduction (under dev’t)

19 NCs and NAPAs National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs)
National Communications (NCs) Report on programmes to facilitate adaptation Vulnerability and Adaptation assessment Starting point for formulating projects – V&A priorities and climate change rationale National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) Respond to vulnerability of LDCs Prioritize adaptation measures supportive of existing development plans Identify urgent actions to adapt

20 Demonstration and Pilot Projects
Climate-resilient development (LDCF, SCCF) Integrate climate risks into development sectors. Short- and long-term adaptation to address current climate variability as well as long-term change UNDP’s priority Ecosystem resilience (SPA) Integrate adaptation into the GEF focal areas Where climate change risks are evaluated to be significant (e.g. Biodiversity, Land Degradation, International Waters)

21 Guiding Approach for Adapting Development
Identify Current National Policy Baselines Agriculture-related Water-related Health Disaster Risk Management Coastal Development Integrate Future Climate Risks in Development Approaches: Strategies, policies, measures/practices Scales: Community, national, regional Sustainability: Financing instruments Capacity: Institutions, information, and stakeholder capacity building Promote Adapted National Policy Frameworks - “Outcomes” Examples of restructured sector policies: SP1 Agriculture SP2 Water SP3 Health SP4 Climate disaster SP5 Coastal Dev. Rural development policies utilize seasonal forecasts Demand side management based on information on future water availability Monitoring/control of disease vectors improved EWS and response coverage increased Policies support development in low-risk areas

22 UNDP-GEF Adaptation Portfolio
Full- and medium-size projects in 43 countries

23 UNDP-GEF Adaptation Portfolio - 18 Medium & Full Size Projects beyond PDF stage: $43.4 million in GEF funding

24 UNDP-GEF Adaptation Portfolio

25 Thematic Distribution of UNDP-GEF Projects
Sector/topic Country Water management Tanzania, Ecuador (SCCF) Agriculture Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia (SPA); Pacific Islands (SCCF); India (SCCF) Health Fiji, Barbados, Jordan, Uzbekistan, China, Bhutan, Kenya (SCCF) Coastal zones Cape Verde, Mauritania, Gambia, Guinea Bissau (SPA), Uruguay (SPA) Tourism: Maldives (SCCF) Disaster risk management India (SCCF), Pacific Islands (SCCF) Community-based adaptation Samoa, Bolivia, Niger, Bangladesh (Morocco, Namibia, Vietnam, Guatemala, Kazakhstan and Jamaica to join in 2006/7) (SPA)

26 Project Example - Coping with Drought and Climate Change
Countries: Kenya, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe Fund: SPA, Land Degradation Amount: $1.0M GEF per country + $1.0M Co-fin per country Components: Assist communities to cope with drought through pilot adaptation measures Enhance use of EWS and improve communication of climate information with agriculturalists Promote drought preparedness and mitigation policies Replicate successful approaches across the region

27 Coping with Drought and Climate Change
Baseline: Rural communities use current coping strategies, which become inadequate as drought increases in frequency and intensity Additional: Strengthened drought mitigation skills of community development practitioners Alternative livelihoods employed during droughts Improved flow and use of early warning information for drought response Drought mitigation mainstreamed in development plans

28 Coping with Drought and Climate Change
Adaptive capacities of local communities, local and national institutions and the regional networks will be strengthened through concrete activities. Specific focus is on managing the risks associated with future climate change and its impact on land degradation while piloting specific adaptation measures

29 Namibia - CCA Fund: SPA, LD
Adapting to Climate Change through the Improvement of Traditional Crops and Livestock Farming Fund: SPA, LD Amount $1.0M GEF + Co-financing $1.0M Government Components: Climate change adaptation measures of rural communities in agricultural production piloted and tested Improved information flows on climate change, including variability (such as drought) between providers and key users Climate change issues integrated into planning processes, e.g. National Drought Policy Focus at community-level, equipping small-holder farmers with improved capacities to adapt to climatic change and increased levels of drought.

30 UNDP-GEF Adaptation Projects – key issues
39 UNDP-GEF Adaptation Projects – key issues The problem must be clearly due to climate change Impacts must be due to climate change, Climate data must be best available The timescale of climate analysis must be clear Must differentiate between short and long term and match funds: long term - SCCF/SPA, short term – LDCF Must link to National Priorities, Action Plans, Programmes Proposal must be based on rigorous pipelining approach Learning component (contribution to ALM) must be clear Co-financing must be explained to satisfy fund requirements Must clearly outline Goal, Objective, and Outcomes Monitoring of outcomes must be explicit Use of APF should be systematic in project design

31 Climate Change Adaptation UNDP-GEF
Further Information Thank you! Contact: Bo Lim Climate Change Adaptation UNDP-GEF

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