Presentation on theme: "UNDP Approach to Adaptation"— Presentation transcript:
0Climate Change and Land Degradation - Arusha UNDP-GEF AdaptationClimate Change and Land Degradation - ArushaNyawira MuthuiDecember 2006
1UNDP Approach to Adaptation Adaptation Project PortfolioPresented on behalf of the UNDP-GEF Adaptation Team
2Bo Lim – UNDP-GEF Adaptation Unit Climate Change Adaptation UNDP-GEF Further InformationContact:Bo Lim – UNDP-GEF Adaptation UnitClimate Change AdaptationUNDP-GEF
3Defining Adaptation – Doing Development Differently “Adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effect, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities.” (IPCC 2001)“Practical steps to protect countries and communities from the likely disruption and damage that will result from effects of climate change.” (UNFCCC website, 2006)“A process by which strategies to moderate, cope with and take advantage of the consequences of climatic events are enhanced, developed, and implemented” (UNDP 2005)
4GEF Adaptation FundPilot or demonstration projects to integrate adaptation into national policyMust meet global environmental objectives and have development benefitsAdaptation within climate change, biodiversity, international waters and land degradation projectsOperational since July 2004
5Adaptation in LDWithin Land Degradation Cluster adaptation is seen achieved through mainstreaming practices to climate proof Sustainable Land ManagementBuilding adaptive capacity to reduce communities, economies and ecosystem vulnerability to negative impacts of climate changeIn practice, this meansChanging existing policies and practicesAdopting new policies and practices so as to secure MDGs in the face of climate change and its associated impacts
6UNDP-GEF Principles of Adaptation Helping developing countries to adapt to climate change impacts is central to UNDP core mandate for promoting development and poverty reduction across the globe.UNDP provides several services to help programme countries to access adaptation funds:helping them to evaluate adaptation options, identify promising investment opportunities, and ensure timely and cost effective delivery of projects.
7UNDP-GEF Adaptation Principles Adaptation activities must further the achievement of the MDGsAdaptation activities must be development focusedThe starting point for developing national responses is strengthening adaptive capacity to reduce community and ecosystem vulnerability to negative impacts of CCStakeholder involvement and public participation are keyUNDP’s policy and technical guidance should be leveragedLeverage UNDP-GEF programming by building on NCs and NAPAs
9Types of adaptation funds The Strategic Priority on Adaptation (SPA)Financed by the GEF Trust Fund:ecosystem/focal area focused fund.The goal - to ensure that climate change concerns are incorporated in the management o f ecosystems through GEF focal area projects.
10Type of Adaptation Fund The Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF)Financed by additional voluntary contributionschannelled through GEFA development -focused fund designed specifically for addressing short or long term adaptation measures to climate change in the poorest countries.
11Types of Adaptation Funds The Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF):Financed by additional voluntary contributions channelled through GEFa development -focused fund concerned primarily with long term activities, programmes and measures in the development sectors that are most affected by global climate change.
12Adaptation Policy Framework (APF) APF has been prepared by the UNDP/GEF Capacity Development and Adaptation Cluster as the Cornerstone of UNDP’s Strategy in AdaptationAPF will assist in the process of incorporating adaptation concerns into national strategiesFour-phased Approach
13Four Phases of the UNDP-GEF Adaptation Strategy 2012Phase IV:Implementation2010Phase III:NationalAssessments2008Phase Ib: Methodological Improvement &DisseminationPhase II:RegionalAssessments20062004Phase 1a:MethodologicalDevelopment2002Activities
14APF - Key Innovations Links current with future climate variations If future climate change brings both increased variability and directional shifts, understanding current climate-related extreme events and responses will provide basis for future responses (and surprises)Uses the concept of adaptation or development baseline to build on current experience to cope with future climateEmphasizes adaptive capacity…….. as the potential of a system to adjust characteristics or behaviour, to cope with climate change, including variability
15APF Adaptation Approaches APF ApproachHAZARD-BASEDTop-down, scenario-driven, formal risk mapping for hazardsVULNERABILITY-BASEDBottom-up: no mapping or scenarios, vulnerability combined with general hazard informationADAPTIVE CAPACITYBottom-up: providing options for adaptingPOLICY-BASEDTop-down/bottom-up: adaptation via policy interventionProject Outcome ExamplesAmeliorated impacts in high-risk areas, early warning, response measuresReduced vulnerability of population and high-risk groups: improve access, livelihoods, securityEnhanced adaptive capacity - better preparedness, awareness, empowerment, livelihood options“Adaptation friendly” policies, programmes, strategies, that discourage high-risk or maladaptive behavior
16Climate Risks to MDGs MDGs CLIMATE RISKS MDG 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hungerDepleted livelihood assets, reduced economic growth, and undermined food security.MDG 2: Achieve universal primary educationReduced ability of children to participate in full-time education by loss of infrastructure, loss of livelihoods (forcing children to work), and displaced families.MDG 3: Promote gender equality and empower womenAdditional burdens on women's health and limited time to participate in decision-making and income-generating activities.MDGs 4, 5 and 6: Reduce child mortality; improve maternal health; combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases availability of potable water.Greater prevalence of vector- and water-borne diseases, and heat-related mortality, declining food security, maternal health, and availability of potable waterMDG 7: Ensure environmental sustainabilityNegatively impacted natural resources and productive ecosystems
17Lessons - Adaptation Learning Mechanism (ALM) Notes:The ALM aims to capture the current state of knowledge on planning, implementing, and integrating adaptation in development; identify gaps in adaptation knowledge by drawing lessons from adaptation portfolio reviews; and develop responses to these knowledge gaps to support long-term adaptation planning by the GEF and other adaptation stakeholders. A key activity of the project will be to provide tools for ongoing learning through an online knowledge base and information sharing platform. Finally, outreach will ensure that lessons learned about integrating adaptation in development planning are disseminated at multiple scales.The ALM will build on the successes of past knowledge management projects at GEF and create a highly relevant set of tools for learning from IA adaptation experience to date. This knowledge will be shared with users in each UNDP region, setting into motion a platform for continued learning as adaptation becomes increasingly important in the future.The Goal of the Adaptation Learning Mechanism (ALM) is to improve the effective integration of adaptation to climate change within development planning of the GEF, Implementing Agencies, and non-Annex I countries.The Objective of the project is to provide tools and establish a learning platform (knowledge base) for integrating adaptation to climate change within the development planning of the GEF, IAs and non-Annex 1 countries.The ALM is a global knowledge management project for adaptationLessons - Adaptation Learning Mechanism (ALM)Knowledge base for adaptation establishedAdaptation projects reviewedGaps in knowledge and practice identifiedGaps in knowledge addressedGood practice identifiedLearning and knowledge sharedRegional approach taken
18Phase II: Regional Pilot Projects Scope: watershed management, disaster risk management, food security, healthOther Phase II Projects:Central America, Mexico, and CubaMaghreb: Integrated Watershed Mgt water supply and aquifersCentral America, Mexico, and Cuba: APFClimate change and Human Health (with WHO);Adaptation Learning MechanismCommunity Based Adaptation (with SGP)Asia and Andean region: Climate Change and Flood Risk Reduction (under dev’t)
19NCs and NAPAs National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) National Communications (NCs)Report on programmes to facilitate adaptationVulnerability and Adaptation assessmentStarting point for formulating projects – V&A priorities and climate change rationaleNational Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs)Respond to vulnerability of LDCsPrioritize adaptation measures supportive of existing development plansIdentify urgent actions to adapt
20Demonstration and Pilot Projects Climate-resilient development (LDCF, SCCF)Integrate climate risks into development sectors.Short- and long-term adaptation to address current climate variability as well as long-term changeUNDP’s priorityEcosystem resilience (SPA)Integrate adaptation into the GEF focal areasWhere climate change risks are evaluated to be significant (e.g. Biodiversity, Land Degradation, International Waters)
21Guiding Approach for Adapting Development Identify Current National Policy BaselinesAgriculture-relatedWater-relatedHealthDisaster Risk ManagementCoastal DevelopmentIntegrate Future Climate Risks in DevelopmentApproaches: Strategies, policies, measures/practicesScales: Community, national, regionalSustainability: Financing instrumentsCapacity: Institutions, information, and stakeholder capacity buildingPromote Adapted National Policy Frameworks - “Outcomes”Examples of restructured sector policies:SP1 AgricultureSP2 WaterSP3 HealthSP4 Climate disasterSP5 Coastal Dev.Rural development policies utilizeseasonal forecastsDemand side management based on information on future water availabilityMonitoring/control of disease vectors improvedEWS and response coverage increasedPolicies support development inlow-risk areas
22UNDP-GEF Adaptation Portfolio Full- and medium-size projects in 43 countries
23UNDP-GEF Adaptation Portfolio - 18 Medium & Full Size Projects beyond PDF stage: $43.4 million in GEF funding
25Thematic Distribution of UNDP-GEF Projects Sector/topicCountryWater managementTanzania, Ecuador (SCCF)AgricultureEthiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia (SPA); Pacific Islands (SCCF); India (SCCF)HealthFiji, Barbados, Jordan, Uzbekistan, China, Bhutan, Kenya (SCCF)Coastal zonesCape Verde, Mauritania, Gambia, Guinea Bissau (SPA), Uruguay (SPA)Tourism: Maldives (SCCF)Disaster risk managementIndia (SCCF), Pacific Islands (SCCF)Community-based adaptationSamoa, Bolivia, Niger, Bangladesh (Morocco, Namibia, Vietnam, Guatemala, Kazakhstan and Jamaica to join in 2006/7) (SPA)
26Project Example - Coping with Drought and Climate Change Countries: Kenya, Ethiopia, Mozambique, ZimbabweFund: SPA, Land DegradationAmount: $1.0M GEF per country + $1.0M Co-fin per countryComponents:Assist communities to cope with drought through pilot adaptation measuresEnhance use of EWS and improve communication of climate information with agriculturalistsPromote drought preparedness and mitigation policiesReplicate successful approaches across the region
27Coping with Drought and Climate Change Baseline:Rural communities use current coping strategies, which become inadequate as drought increases in frequency and intensityAdditional:Strengthened drought mitigation skills of community development practitionersAlternative livelihoods employed during droughtsImproved flow and use of early warning information for drought responseDrought mitigation mainstreamed in development plans
28Coping with Drought and Climate Change Adaptive capacities of local communities, local and national institutions and the regional networks will be strengthened through concrete activities.Specific focus is on managing the risks associated with future climate change and its impact on land degradation while piloting specific adaptation measures
29Namibia - CCA Fund: SPA, LD Adapting to Climate Change through the Improvement of Traditional Crops and Livestock FarmingFund: SPA, LDAmount $1.0M GEF + Co-financing $1.0M GovernmentComponents:Climate change adaptation measures of rural communities in agricultural production piloted and testedImproved information flows on climate change, including variability (such as drought) between providers and key usersClimate change issues integrated into planning processes, e.g. National Drought PolicyFocus at community-level, equipping small-holder farmers with improved capacities to adapt to climatic change and increased levels of drought.
30UNDP-GEF Adaptation Projects – key issues 39UNDP-GEF Adaptation Projects – key issuesThe problem must be clearly due to climate changeImpacts must be due to climate change, Climate data must be best availableThe timescale of climate analysis must be clearMust differentiate between short and long term and match funds: long term - SCCF/SPA, short term – LDCFMust link to National Priorities, Action Plans, ProgrammesProposal must be based on rigorous pipelining approachLearning component (contribution to ALM) must be clearCo-financing must be explained to satisfy fund requirementsMust clearly outline Goal, Objective, and OutcomesMonitoring of outcomes must be explicitUse of APF should be systematic in project design