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UNDP-GEF Adaptation Climate Change and Land Degradation - Arusha Nyawira Muthui December 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "UNDP-GEF Adaptation Climate Change and Land Degradation - Arusha Nyawira Muthui December 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNDP-GEF Adaptation Climate Change and Land Degradation - Arusha Nyawira Muthui December 2006

2 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 1 1 UNDP Approach to Adaptation Adaptation Project Portfolio Presented on behalf of the UNDP-GEF Adaptation Team

3 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 2 2 Further Information Contact: Bo Lim – UNDP-GEF Adaptation Unit Climate Change Adaptation UNDP-GEF

4 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 3 3 Defining Adaptation – Doing Development Differently Practical steps to protect countries and communities from the likely disruption and damage that will result from effects of climate change. (UNFCCC website, 2006) Adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effect, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities. (IPCC 2001) A process by which strategies to moderate, cope with and take advantage of the consequences of climatic events are enhanced, developed, and implemented (UNDP 2005)

5 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 4 4 GEF Adaptation Fund Pilot or demonstration projects to integrate adaptation into national policy Must meet global environmental objectives and have development benefits Adaptation within climate change, biodiversity, international waters and land degradation projects Operational since July 2004

6 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 5 5 Adaptation in LD 1. Within Land Degradation Cluster adaptation is seen achieved through mainstreaming practices to climate proof Sustainable Land Management 2. Building adaptive capacity to reduce communities, economies and ecosystem vulnerability to negative impacts of climate change In practice, this means Changing existing policies and practices Adopting new policies and practices so as to secure MDGs in the face of climate change and its associated impacts

7 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 6 6 UNDP-GEF Principles of Adaptation Helping developing countries to adapt to climate change impacts is central to UNDP core mandate for promoting development and poverty reduction across the globe. UNDP provides several services to help programme countries to access adaptation funds: –helping them to evaluate adaptation options, identify promising investment opportunities, and ensure timely and cost effective delivery of projects.

8 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 7 7 UNDP-GEF Adaptation Principles Adaptation activities must further the achievement of the MDGs Adaptation activities must be development focused The starting point for developing national responses is strengthening adaptive capacity to reduce community and ecosystem vulnerability to negative impacts of CC Stakeholder involvement and public participation are key UNDPs policy and technical guidance should be leveraged Leverage UNDP-GEF programming by building on NCs and NAPAs

9 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 8 8 GEF Adaptation Funds

10 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 9 9 Types of adaptation funds The Strategic Priority on Adaptation (SPA) Financed by the GEF Trust Fund: ecosystem/focal area focused fund. The goal - to ensure that climate change concerns are incorporated in the management o f ecosystems through GEF focal area projects.

11 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 10 Type of Adaptation Fund The Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) Financed by additional voluntary contributions channelled through GEF A development -focused fund designed specifically for addressing short or long term adaptation measures to climate change in the poorest countries.

12 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 11 Types of Adaptation Funds The Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF): Financed by additional voluntary contributions channelled through GEF a development -focused fund concerned primarily with long term activities, programmes and measures in the development sectors that are most affected by global climate change.

13 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 12 Adaptation Policy Framework (APF) APF has been prepared by the UNDP/GEF Capacity Development and Adaptation Cluster as the Cornerstone of UNDPs Strategy in Adaptation APF will assist in the process of incorporating adaptation concerns into national strategies Four-phased Approach

14 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 13 Four Phases of the UNDP-GEF Adaptation Strategy Activities Phase 1a: Methodological Development Phase Ib: Methodological Improvement & Dissemination Phase II: Regional Assessments Phase III: National Assessments Phase IV: Implementation

15 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 14 APF - Key Innovations Links current with future climate variations If future climate change brings both increased variability and directional shifts, understanding current climate-related extreme events and responses will provide basis for future responses (and surprises) Uses the concept of adaptation or development baseline to build on current experience to cope with future climate Emphasizes adaptive capacity…….. as the potential of a system to adjust characteristics or behaviour, to cope with climate change, including variability

16 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 15 APF Adaptation Approaches Project Outcome Examples Ameliorated impacts in high-risk areas, early warning, response measures Reduced vulnerability of population and high-risk groups: improve access, livelihoods, security Enhanced adaptive capacity - better preparedness, awareness, empowerment, livelihood options Adaptation friendly policies, programmes, strategies, that discourage high- risk or maladaptive behavior APF Approach HAZARD-BASED Top-down, scenario-driven, formal risk mapping for hazards VULNERABILITY-BASED Bottom-up: no mapping or scenarios, vulnerability combined with general hazard information ADAPTIVE CAPACITY Bottom-up: providing options for adapting POLICY-BASED Top-down/bottom-up: adaptation via policy intervention

17 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 16 Climate Risks to MDGs MDGsCLIMATE RISKS MDG 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Depleted livelihood assets, reduced economic growth, and undermined food security. MDG 2: Achieve universal primary educationReduced ability of children to participate in full-time education by loss of infrastructure, loss of livelihoods (forcing children to work), and displaced families. MDG 3: Promote gender equality and empower women Additional burdens on women's health and limited time to participate in decision- making and income-generating activities. MDGs 4, 5 and 6: Reduce child mortality; improve maternal health; combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases availability of potable water. Greater prevalence of vector- and water- borne diseases, and heat-related mortality, declining food security, maternal health, and availability of potable water MDG 7: Ensure environmental sustainabilityNegatively impacted natural resources and productive ecosystems

18 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 17 Lessons - Adaptation Learning Mechanism (ALM) Knowledge base for adaptation established Adaptation projects reviewed Gaps in knowledge and practice identified Gaps in knowledge addressed Good practice identified Learning and knowledge shared Regional approach taken PARTNER- SHIPS STRUCTURED LEARNING INNOVATION - good practice INFO SHARING – projects, methods, measures

19 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 18 Phase II: Regional Pilot Projects Scope: watershed management, disaster risk management, food security, health Other Phase II Projects: Central America, Mexico, and Cuba Maghreb: Integrated Watershed Mgt water supply and aquifers Central America, Mexico, and Cuba: APF Climate change and Human Health (with WHO); Adaptation Learning Mechanism Community Based Adaptation (with SGP) Asia and Andean region: Climate Change and Flood Risk Reduction (under devt)

20 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 19 NCs and NAPAs National Communications (NCs) Report on programmes to facilitate adaptation Vulnerability and Adaptation assessment Starting point for formulating projects – V&A priorities and climate change rationale National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) Respond to vulnerability of LDCs Prioritize adaptation measures supportive of existing development plans Identify urgent actions to adapt

21 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 20 Climate-resilient development (LDCF, SCCF) Integrate climate risks into development sectors. Short- and long-term adaptation to address current climate variability as well as long-term change UNDPs priority Demonstration and Pilot Projects Ecosystem resilience (SPA) Integrate adaptation into the GEF focal areas Where climate change risks are evaluated to be significant (e.g. Biodiversity, Land Degradation, International Waters)

22 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 21 Guiding Approach for Adapting Development Agriculture-relatedWater-relatedHealth Disaster Risk Management Coastal Development Approaches: Strategies, policies, measures/practices Scales: Community, national, regional Sustainability: Financing instruments Capacity: Institutions, information, and stakeholder capacity building Examples of restructured sector policies: SP1 AgricultureSP2 WaterSP3 Health SP4 Climate disaster SP5 Coastal Dev. Rural development policies utilize seasonal forecasts Demand side management based on information on future water availability Monitoring/control of disease vectors improved EWS and response coverage increased Policies support development in low-risk areas Integrate Future Climate Risks in Development Promote Adapted National Policy Frameworks - Outcomes Identify Current National Policy Baselines

23 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 22 UNDP-GEF Adaptation Portfolio Full- and medium-size projects in 43 countries

24 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 23 UNDP-GEF Adaptation Portfolio - 18 Medium & Full Size Projects beyond PDF stage: $43.4 million in GEF funding

25 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 24 UNDP-GEF Adaptation Portfolio

26 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 25 Thematic Distribution of UNDP-GEF Projects Sector/topicCountry Water managementTanzania, Ecuador (SCCF) AgricultureEthiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia (SPA); Pacific Islands (SCCF); India (SCCF) HealthFiji, Barbados, Jordan, Uzbekistan, China, Bhutan, Kenya (SCCF) Coastal zonesCape Verde, Mauritania, Gambia, Guinea Bissau (SPA), Uruguay (SPA) Tourism: Maldives (SCCF) Disaster risk management India (SCCF), Pacific Islands (SCCF) Community-based adaptation Samoa, Bolivia, Niger, Bangladesh (Morocco, Namibia, Vietnam, Guatemala, Kazakhstan and Jamaica to join in 2006/7) (SPA)

27 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 26 Project Example - Coping with Drought and Climate Change Countries: Kenya, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe Fund: SPA, Land Degradation Amount: $1.0M GEF per country + $1.0M Co-fin per country Components: (i)Assist communities to cope with drought through pilot adaptation measures (ii)Enhance use of EWS and improve communication of climate information with agriculturalists (iii)Promote drought preparedness and mitigation policies (iv)Replicate successful approaches across the region

28 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 27 Coping with Drought and Climate Change Baseline: Rural communities use current coping strategies, which become inadequate as drought increases in frequency and intensity Additional: Strengthened drought mitigation skills of community development practitioners Alternative livelihoods employed during droughts Improved flow and use of early warning information for drought response Drought mitigation mainstreamed in development plans

29 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 28 Coping with Drought and Climate Change Adaptive capacities of local communities, local and national institutions and the regional networks will be strengthened through concrete activities. Specific focus is on managing the risks associated with future climate change and its impact on land degradation while piloting specific adaptation measures

30 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 29 Namibia - CCA Adapting to Climate Change through the Improvement of Traditional Crops and Livestock Farming – Fund: SPA, LD – Amount $1.0M GEF + Co-financing $1.0M Government Components: i) Climate change adaptation measures of rural communities in agricultural production piloted and tested ii) Improved information flows on climate change, including variability (such as drought) between providers and key users iii) Climate change issues integrated into planning processes, e.g. National Drought Policy Focus at community-level, equipping small-holder farmers with improved capacities to adapt to climatic change and increased levels of drought.

31 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 30 UNDP-GEF Adaptation Projects – key issues The problem must be clearly due to climate change Impacts must be due to climate change, Climate data must be best available The timescale of climate analysis must be clear Must differentiate between short and long term and match funds: long term - SCCF/SPA, short term – LDCF Must link to National Priorities, Action Plans, Programmes Proposal must be based on rigorous pipelining approach Learning component (contribution to ALM) must be clear Co-financing must be explained to satisfy fund requirements Must clearly outline Goal, Objective, and Outcomes Monitoring of outcomes must be explicit Use of APF should be systematic in project design

32 UNDP-GEF Adaptation 31 Further Information Contact: Bo Lim Climate Change Adaptation UNDP-GEF Thank you!

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