Presentation on theme: "Compact city policies: a workable spatial development model in a changing urban context? Tadashi MATSUMOTO Regional Policy for Sustainable Development."— Presentation transcript:
1 Compact city policies: a workable spatial development model in a changing urban context? Tadashi MATSUMOTORegional Policy for Sustainable Development Division, OECDPresentation at the Open Days UniversityOctober 12, 2011, BrusselsThe purpose of my presentation is to introduce an OECD study on compact city policies, which is going to be published at the end of this year
2 Introduction Changing urban context Continued urbanisationGlobal environmental challengesEnergy priceEconomic crisisDemographic changesGreen Growth: how to realize economic growth while addressing environmental concerns“Workable” urban development model?Current urban contextOECD launched its Green Growth strategy in May Green Growth focuses on taking advantage of the complementarity of economic and environmental challenges. In other words, environment should not be a constraint for economic growth, but rather a driver for innovation and growth.These changing urban environment strongly calls for a “workable” urban development model. This is a reason why my team started looking at compact city.
3 Objectivesunderstand the concept and today’s urban contexts for compact cityunderstand potential outcomes, particularly in terms of green growthdevelop indicatorsexamine and assess current practicespresent key policy design and governance strategiesSo our objective is to examine whether compact city is a sound, reasonable urban development model under the current urban policy context.To better understand the compact city concept and the implications of today’s urban contexts for compact city policies.To better understand potential outcomes, particularly in terms of how compact cities can contribute to green growthTo develop indicators to monitor compact cities and track policy performanceTo examine compact city policies currently being implemented across the OECD in relation to the pursuit of Green Growth objectives and provide ideas for achieving better outcomesTo assess the key compact city strategies as well as key governance challenges and provide ideas for achieving better outcomes
4 Case studies Melbourne, Vancouver, Paris, Toyama and Portland All regions explicitly set their compact city goals, but with different urban contextsPopulation trend: growing/shrinkingPopulation size: large/small-mediumGeographySome have long policy history, some don’t
5 Policy assessment: key results Packaging complimentary policiesCounteract traffic congestionEnsure housing affordabilityHigh-quality urban design / public realm investmentEncourage green buildingsReflecting local contextDiversifying policy instrumentsuse of price machanism coupled with regulationsPackaging complimentary policies: in order to counteract potential adverse effects (congestion, housing affordability, urban heat islands, etc.), complemantary policies should be integrated within the scope of compact city policies.Reflecting local context: one compact city model does not fit all. Appropriate policy goals and instruments should be chosen according to the local context.Diversifying policy instruments: a wide range of policy measures, including utilization of price mechanism, should be incorporated into policy packages.Improving metropolitan governance: a good metropolitan governance is key for effective policy implementation.
7 Improving metropolitan governance A region-wide, integrated, long-term visionA clear articulation of the roles and responsibilities of all key actors and stakeholdersVertical and horizontal coordination – networked governance arrangementsAccountability, transparency and reportingStrategic plan is important – considering that urban spatial form only changes slowly.
8 Case study: Toyama, Japan Population: 0.4 million (City), 1.1 million (prefecture)Reached the peak in 2005 and expected to decrease by 20% by 2040Ageing: by 2035, one out of three are expected to be over 65I am going to highlight a case study in Toyama, Japan, in order to illustrate how cities in a shrinking population can introduce compact city policies. Toyama is one of the 47 prefectural capital cities in Japan.
9 Urban expansion trend in Toyama Population changes in Toyama City (past 30 years)In spite of this trend of population decline, the urban expansion is likely to continue.
10 Challenge in public service delivery Estimated average costs per residentRelationship curve for population density and maintenance/update fees required for per residentBenefits and costs are balanced about 40 persons/ha.Administrative cost in low-density urban areasWhat drove Toyama to compact city is quite unique.The graph shows the relationship between population density and administrative costs per capitaThe areas less dense than this point cost more than the benefits.The city of Toyama estimated that if the current trend of population diffusion continues until 2025, their administrative costs per capita will increase by 12%.Source: "Toyama City Compact Urban Development Investigative Research Report"
11 Access to service is linked with density Distance to the nearest medical facilitiesAnother challenge for Toyama is the mobility of the elderly under a high automobile dependency.Source: Kaido and Kwon (2008)
12 Compact City model in Toyama YatsuoOsawanoHosoiriOyamaShinjoMinamitoyamaIwaseKurehaMizuhashiFuchuToyamaYamadaRailway/streetcar/bus serviceRailway serviceBus serviceWide-area hubLocal hubLegendRenovation of public transportation to reduce auto-dependencyIncentives to concentrate activities in the target areasToyama model is characterised by:Renovation of public transportation to reduce auto-dependencyFinancial incentives to concentrate activities in the target areasRegulatory tools to contain development are as important, because further sprawl may lead high public service maintenance cost. Concerns to congestion and high rents are not seriousEconomic disincentives such as taxation are difficult due to the concern to more hollowing out of population. Interestingly, the city is providing direct subsidies not only to the residents who are moving into the areas, but also the private developers who do residential development in the areas. It maybe a costly tool, but the city estimates the cost will be paid in the long run.To promote densification, regulatory tools are not as effective. They have to rely on economic incentives such as subsidies.Strategic location of public facilities such as hospitals is very important for compactness.In conclusion, the concept of compact city can be applied in the different regions, but adjusting the strategies and instruments according to the local context is crucial.I will stop my presentation now, and I am happy to take questions. Thank you very much.