Presentation on theme: "EUROPEAN UNION BATTLEGROUPS"— Presentation transcript:
1EUROPEAN UNION BATTLEGROUPS Good morning ladies and gentlemen,For the next minutes I will try to introduce you as deep as the time enables me to do so, in some basic terms concerning the EU Battle Groups.1
2SECTIONS 1. Historical Elements 2. Battlegroup General Composition 3. Battlegroup Requirements - Capabilities4. Battlegroup Coordination Conference (BGCC)Battlegroup RosterBattlegroups strucuresSK tasks, role and compositionMy presentation includes the following subjects covering an overall overview of the BG Concept.Historical elements about EU Rapid Response and particularly about the BG Concept.BGs General Composition.BGs Requirements - Capabilities.BG Coordination Conference (BGCC)BG RosterBG structureSK tasks, role and composition
3HISTORICAL ELEMENTS THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL ( Helsinki 1999) ‘ The European Council has agreed…….cooperating voluntarily in EU-led operations, Member States must be able, by 2003, to deploy within 60 days and sustain for at least 1 year military forces of up to 50,000-60,000 persons capable of the full range of Petersberg tasks;’..‘and within this to provide smaller rapid response elements available and deployable at very high readiness’The initial seeds for the concept of the EU battlegroups can be traced back to the European Council Summit meeting held in Helsinki on December 1999.While the establishment of the Headline Goal 2003 and its associated catalogue of up to 50,000-60,000 personnel was the principal outcome of the summit, The Helsinki Presidency Conclusions note that special attention will be given to a rapid reaction capability. Within the Helsinki Headline Goal obligations it is specified that EU Member States should be able to provide `smaller rapid response elements available and deployable at very high readiness’.
4HISTORICAL ELEMENTS THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL ( Helsinki 1999) EU DEFENSE MINISTERS ( Sintra 2000)‘ ... we should be able to provide a smaller rapid response element of immediate reaction forces at very high readiness, particularly of entry and other enabling forces; the scale and the nature of such forces will depend on the particular circumstances of an operation ‘
5HISTORICAL ELEMENTS THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL ( Helsinki 1999) EU DEFENSE MINISTERS ( Sintra 2000)GAERC ( )‘ … at complementing the Headline Goal with a precise definition and subsequent identification of modalities for EU rapid response elements ‘In December 2003 the General Affairs and External Relations Council (GAERC) concluded that the work on EU military rapid response capability should aim "… at complementing the Headline Goal with a precise definition and subsequent identification of modalities for EU rapid response elements".In February 2004, the UK, France and Germany unveiled a food for thought paper outlining a Battle –Group Concept which was favourably received by the General Affairs and External Relations Council on 22 March 2004.Few weeks later, at the GAERC meeting held at 17 May 2004, representatives approved the Headline Goal 2010,in which battlegroups would play a key element.
6HISTORICAL ELEMENTS THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL ( Helsinki 1999) EU DEFENSE MINISTERS ( Sintra 2000)GAERC ( )EUMC (2004)‘ EU Battlegroup Concept ‘Revision in 2006In March 2004, the European Union Military Committee tasked to the EUMS to develop the EU BG Concept and it was agreed by the EUMC in November.
7BGs GENERAL COMPOSITION 1. Full Operational Capability (FOC) since 1st Jan 20072. The minimum force package capable for stand-alone operations3. Battalion sized4. Based on multinationality (FW Nation, coalition of MS and/or MS with Third States)5. Associated with (F)HQ and strategic enablersBGs General CompositionThe first-generated EU BGs stood at their Initial Operational Capability (IOC) until the end of 2006 and since the 1st of January 2007 they attained Full Operational Capability (FOC) which means that EU maintains two BG on standby on a permanent basis and the hole issue is managed by the OPS Directorate (former OPS/EXE Division).In accordance with the "BG Concept" a BG :Is the minimum military effective, credible, rapidly deployable, coherent force package capable of stand-alone operations, or for the initial phase of larger operations;Is based on a combined arms, battalion sized force and re-enforced with Combat Support (CS) and Combat Service Support (CSS) elements;Will be based on the principle of multinationality and could be formed by a Framework Nation or a multinational coalition of Member States (MS). (In line with the Nice European Council Conclusions, MS are welcome to include the non-EU European NATO countries and other countries which are candidates for accession to the EU, in their BGs. In such cases this will be done without prejudice to the rights of any MS. MS are also welcome to consider including other potential partners in their BGs). In any case, interoperability and military effectiveness have to be the key criteria;Must be associated with a Force Headquarters ((F)HQ) and pre-identified operational and strategic enablers, such as strategic lift and logistics.A generic outline is depicted in the slide on screen.
8BGs GENERAL COMPOSITION Tailored to the Operation INFANTRY BATTALION- HQ- HQ Company- 3 X Infantry Company- Fire Support- Reconnaissance- Staff SupportCOMBAT SUPPORTAmong others :- Fire Support- Engineer- Air Defense- Reconnaissance- CIS- Electronic Warfare- Intelligence- Information Operations- Helicopter Support- Forward Air Control- Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear DefenseCOMBAT SERVICE SUPPORTAmong others :- Logistic Support- Medical Support- Geographical Support- CIMIC- Military PoliceThe EU BGs committed by EU Member States have a generic composition of approximately 1,500 troops. It is based on a combined arms, battalion-sized force package with appropriate combat support and combat service support . The whole EU BG package will include operational and strategic enablers and will therefore surpass the 1,500 figure.A standard BG is likely to include a headquarters company three infantry companies, and corresponding support personnel. Types of specific units may include mechanised infantry, combat support units and combat support elements. The combination of these different personnel permits an EU BG to act independently and to take on a variety of tasks.It should be noted, however, that it is up to contributing countries to decide on the exact composition of heir BG- both in terms of personnel and equipment.Choice of capabilities.Depending on the characteristics of the operation
9BGs GENERAL COMPOSITION Tailored to the Operation OPERATIONAL AND STRATEGIC ENABLERSAIR- Strategic Airlift- Tactical Airlift- Close Air Support- APOD- Helicopter SupportSEA- Strategic Sealift- Carrier Based Air- SPODLOGISTICS- Combat Service support- Maintenance- Medical Combat SupportOTHER- Special ForcesThe EU Member States offering an EU BG are responsible for generating the forces for the whole BG package including the operational and strategic enablers. This generation process is done on a multinational basis with their BG partners and is normally out of sight of the EU bodies.Choice of capabilities.Depending on the characteristics of the operation
10BGs GENERAL COMPOSITION Tailored to the Operation
11BGs REQUIREMENTS - CAPABILITIES 1. Size, composition, number of BGs after analyzing the possible EU-led Military Operationdays readiness3. Around 1500 troopsSustainable for 30 days extendable to 120 if re-supplied2 concurrent operations, subsequently 2 BGsTraining - Preparation - Certification up to MS6000 km from BrusselsBG Requirements – CapabilitiesThe size, composition and number BGs required, can be defined more precisely by analyzing their possible employment and determining a level of ambition for EU-led Military Operations requiring a rapid response.BGs should be able to implement their mission on the ground no later than 10 days after the Council’s decision to launch an operation. This requires that BGs are to be built on assets and capabilities held at a readiness of days.The BG is designed for a range of possible missions and would have in its generic composition a strength of around 1500 troops.Air, naval and other operational and strategic enablers are to be associated as required.The BG needs to be sustainable until mission termination or until relief by other forces. As a planning basis BGs should therefore be sustainable for 30 days initial operations, extendable to 120 days, if re-supplied appropriately.The level of ambition for the EU is to have the capacity to undertake 2 concurrent single size rapid response operations, including the ability to launch both such operations nearly simultaneously.To be able to meet the EU ambition, the required number of BGs is 2 per standby phase.The necessary training and preparation of BGs forces as well as the certification events remain a national responsibility of the contributing MS.Although EU-led Military Operations are possible anywhere outside the EU, initially, a distance of 6000 km from Brussels is recommended as a planning baseline for BG operations.
12BGs REQUIREMENTS - CAPABILITIES Tasks (according the Treaty of the EU) Humanitarian and rescue tasks Peace-keeping tasks Tasks of combat forces in crisis management, including peacemakingTasks (according the European Security Strategy) Joint Disarmament Operations Support for Third Countries on Combating Terrorism Security Sector Reform as part of broader institution buildingBGs are to be able to respond with rapid and decisive action to the whole spectrum of tasks listed in the Treaty of the European Union and the European Security Strategy bearing in mind their limited size. These tasks are:- Humanitarian and rescue tasks- Peace-keeping tasks- Tasks of combat forces in crisis management, including peacemaking.as well as :- Joint Disarmament Operations- Support of third countries on combating terrorism- Security Sector Reform as part of broader institutional buildingBGs have utility across the full range of these tasks. However, given their limited size, their full potential should be best realized in tasks that are of limited duration and intensity.
13Separation of parties by force Securing key areas BGs REQUIREMENTS - CAPABILITIESScenarioPotential missionsSeparation of parties by forceSecuring key areasConflict preventionPreventive deploymentStabilisation, reconstruction and military advice to third countriesInitial entry pointEvacuation operations in a non-permissive environmentNon-Combatant evacuationAssistance to humanitarian operationsDisaster relief and assistance to migratory movements to safe areasIn this slide, you can see the scenarios and possible examples of missions. The scenarios stem from the Petersberg and European Security Strategy tasks.* Separation of Parties by Force (SOPF) Operations, including Crisis management, Peacemaking and Security Lines of Communication (LOCs)* Conflict Prevention (CP) Operations, including Preventive Deployment, Joint Disarmament Operations, Embargo Operations* Evacuation operations (EO) in a non-permissive environment, including Non-Combatant Evacuation Operations* Assistance to Humanitarian Operations (HA), including Disaster Relief and Assistance to Migratory Movements to Safe Areas
14BG COORDINATION CONFERENCE (BGCC) 1. Twice a year in Brussels2. To confirm the roster at BGCC3. Supported by “Questionnaire”4. Open to MS and Third States5. Voluntary contribution to the BG Packages6. Filling the rosterBG Coordination Conference (BGCC)The BGCC is held twice a year in Brussels with the aim to fill and confirm the BG standby roster and to present a forum for coordination requirements.It is supported by a BG Commitment Questionnaire and is open to all MS and invited contributing third states.During the BGCC, MS declare their willing for contribution to the BG Packages of a specific period (semester) as Framework Nations or participating in a BG Package under another FW Nation.The whole effort aims to fill the gaps in the roster of BG offers and commitments and to identify any caveats or restraints of the forthcoming BG Packages in the near future.
15OFFERS AND COMMITMENTS – 22 APR 2010 BG-package commitments BG COORDINATION CONFERENCE (BGCC)OFFERS AND COMMITMENTS – 22 APR 2010SEMESTERMS (&TS)BG POCPreferred OHQPL, DE, LV, LT, SKPLDEUK, NLUKIT, RO, TRITES, FR, PTESFRNL, DE, FI, AT, LTNLSE, FI, NO, EE, IESEEL, BG, RO, CY, UAELPT, ES, FR, ITPTFR, BE, LUVacantIT, SI, HUDE, AT, CZ, HR, FYROM, IEPL, DE, FRUK, SEEL, BG, RO, CYEL (tbc)BE, NL, DE, LU, ESBEES, ITDetailed commitmentsBG-package commitmentsBG RosterThe current roster derived from the BGCC is shown in the slide.As you can see, nearly the total of the cells have been filled.The conclusion is that important steps have taken forward and the principle of BGs has increased the EU capability and enables it to undertake a rapid response Military Operation.Initial offers
16Let me start then with the essential characteristics of the Battle Group. Based on the Memorandum of Understanding between the ministers of defence of Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia and Poland signed in 2006, Poland was appointed as the Framework Nation, while Potsdam was pointed out as a preferred OHQ. The operational level Force Headquarters is established on the basis of the 17th Mechanized Brigade. Its 1st battalion constitutes the BG’s core element. All the Headquarters cells are multinational.The whole preparation process took three years. All requirements and preconditions are fulfilled and we are at the threshold of the stand-by phase.
17BG COMPOSITION 3185 CORE BG CSS MED CS 434 976 734 663 FHQ 296 MP LOG (+)MPLOGTFmnmnmnmnCIMIC(-)mn(-)LOGPSYOPSmn(-)(-)LOGISTAR(-)LOGIn October 2008, the Brigade was given the mission to form the EU BG package according to the commonly approved EU Battle Group Preparation Concept and other European Union conceptual documents. It is composed of combat and enabling elements and as of today it has 3186 personnel declared by troop contributing nations. The numbers show the overall combat establishment of the specific elements. While Poland is the Framework Nation, Germany took the Lead Nation role in the area of Logistics and Medical Support and Slovakia is the Lead Nation for Engineer resources and materiel. Multinationality is the core principle in every area up to the company level.A/CSPODAPODEODTBCMedevacCORE BGCSSMEDCS
18Special Command & Staff Advisors (F)HQ ORGANISATIONFCdrSpecial Command & Staff AdvisorsDFCdrALOPOLADMPLEGADPIOINFO SecurityMPCOSLNOMEDDCOS OPSDCOS SPTThe Force Headquarters, with a certain level of adaptation and augmentation has been built up according to the EU HQ principles and is able to respond to all requirements at the operational and tactical level of Command in the theatre. It is structured according to the EU FHQ concept and with all CJs and command elements permitting to conduct missions at the tactical as well as operational level. Moreover, it has the ability to plan and control joint operations and to interact within the Comprehensive Approach.CJ2CJ3CJ5CJ9CJEngr/NBCCE=180CJ1CJ4CJ6CJ8CJMed18
21EU BG ORGANIZATION CHART 2500 TroopsFHQCOMBATSUPPORTLOG UNITSMEDICALBGEU BG ORGANIZATION CHARTTHE STRENGHT OF THE EU BG MIGHT REACH UP TO TWO THOUSAND AND FIVE HUNDRED TROOPS DEPENING ON THE ASSIGN MISION. IN FACT, THE BATTLE GROUP PACKAGE IS MISSION TAILORED.THE CORE OF THE BG IS COMPOSED BY A PARACHUTIST INFANTRY REGIMENT WHICH INCLUDES ONE TURKISH COMPANY AND ONE ROMENIAN COMPANY. THE COMBAT SUPPORT ENCOMPASS HELICOPTERS, COMBAT ENGENEERING, INTELLIGENCE-SURVEILLANCE, TARGET ACQUISITION AND RECOINANSANCE UNITS, ELECTRONIC WARFARE ASSETS, MILITARY POLICE, PSYCOLOGICAL UNITS AND A SMALL CIVILIAN MILITARY COOPERATION ASSETS.
22Special Command & Staff Advisors (F)HQ ORGANIZATIONFCdrSpecial Command & Staff AdvisorsDFCdrPOLITICALLEGALGENDERPUBLIC INFORMATIONSCOSMILITARY POLICEMEDICALRELIGIOUSOPSSPT(F)HQ ORGANIZATIONTHAT IS WHAT THE FORCE HEADQUARTER LOOKS LIKE. AS FORCE COMMANDER, DEPUTY AND A SPECIAL STAFF OF SELECTED ADVISORS.THE CHIEF OF STAFF RUNS THE HEADQUARTIER THROUGH TWO MAIN FUNCTIONAL AREAS: THE OPEATIONAL AND THE SUPPORT.THE OPERATIONAL AREA INCLUDES INTELLIGENCE, CURRENT OPERATIONS & PLANS AND CIVILIAN AND MILITARY COOPERATION CELLES, WHILE THE SUPPORT AREA INCLUDES PERSONNEL, LOGISTIC, COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION SYSTEM AND BUDGET AND FINANCIAL CELLES. (NEXT SLIDE)INTOPSCIMICLOGBUD&FINPERSCIS
23BGsBrussels6000 KmThe level of ambition for the EU is to have the capacity to undertake 2 concurrent single size rapid response operations, including the ability to launch both such operations nearly simultaneously.To be able to meet the EU ambition, the required number of BGs is 2 per standby phase.The necessary training and preparation of BGs forces as well as the certification events remain a national responsibility of the contributing MS.Although EU-led Military Operations are possible anywhere outside the EU, initially, a distance of 6000 km from Brussels is recommended as a planning baseline for BG operations.
24Special Committee - Athena Two main tasks:Financing limited to certain common costs and a budget, Member States’ contributions based on GNI keyPre-financing of « Nation Borne Costs », managed in common but billed to States based on their consumptionRole: a budget committeeApproves:the budgetsdeviations from procurement rules for high amountsthe final destination of assets at the end of each operationthe accountsthe Financial RulesMay extend common costs for a given operationCompositionMember States contributing to the financing of each operationThe Commission attends without taking part in votesContributing Third States may attend without voting
25Athena & BG : Difficulty : collecting the BG needs Initial training : ATHENA quarterly seminarOn requestAdvise & liaisonBudget implementationNBCs & cash flow managementLiaison with existing framework operatorsMovement multinational coordination center Europe (MMCCE)Economat des armées (EDA / Pantin – FR)Same common costs for HQs (including BG)Recce (Preparatory phase)Running (Active phase) + costs for force as a wholeDifficulty : collecting the BG needs25
26BG strategic deployment : By the end of 2011, unless the Council agrees to extend it,For EU Member States,When providing strategic airlift for BGs’ short notice deployment in accordance with the BG concept ,Financing in common of incremental costs,Council will determine the flat rates applicable to the payment or reimbursement of these costs.
27Athena & BG : Difficulty : collecting the BG needs : Stand by periodLaunching of the operationDuring the operationRe-deploymentBG points of contact neededATHENA POC :27