Political Machines in the Gilded Age Gilded Age- period after reconstruction from 1877- 1900 (Unprecedented growth, immigration and tumultuous politics) Political Machines- Mayor, Precinct, Ward Boss, Captains, Workers Loyalty, Money, contracts Immigrant enclaves and boss
Graft and scandal Graft- illegal use of political power “kick back” Tweed Ring Scandal- $3 Million courthouse cost $13 Million
Civil Service Patronage – giving jobs to candidates allies Civil Service- Merit System of hire Stalwarts- In NY supporters of Roscoe Conkling who fought against civil Service Rutherford B. Hayes (Pres. 19) angers own party bosses when he begins investigations of custom houses. James Garfield (Pres. 20) elected as an Independent Republican is assassinated Chester A. Arthur (Pres. 21) although elected as Vice President because of connections with City Bosses- he turns reformer. Pendleton Act- Authorization of civil service commission
Business Buys Influence Big Business demands high tariffs Grover Cleveland (Pres. 22) first Democrat in 28 years- tries to lower tariffs but can’t with congress Benjamin Harrison (Pres. 23) backed by Big Business and raises tariffs Grover Cleveland (Pres. 24) becomes President again, but again can’t change tariffs William McKinley (Pres. 25 elected raise Tariffs again
Summary Questions 1)Who were the supporters of Roscoe Conkling and against civil service reform? 2)This act authorized a civil service commission to make government appointments based on merit. 3)This President surprised everyone by turning reformer. 4)Unable to make many reforms due to Congress this President was able to make major changes in custom house. 5)Unethical political practices and influence for political gain 6)Organized groups that controlled city politics?