Presentation on theme: "Objective: To understand local and national political corruption in the 19 th century and the call for reform. Focus: Did you ever give a gift with the."— Presentation transcript:
Objective: To understand local and national political corruption in the 19 th century and the call for reform. Focus: Did you ever give a gift with the intention of getting something in return? Do you believe that such a practice is common among politicians today?
Politics in the Gilded Age(70s- 90s) Time period was represented by greed and self-indulgence of the local/national politicians. Rapid growth led to inefficient gov’t What is Social Darwinism? How can you apply it to this time period? The new power structure=political machine headed by the new politician-the city boss.
Cont… Define the political machine. How is it organized? Draw a diagram and briefly describe how it works. What, briefly, is the role of the political boss? How were these machines able to help immigrants?
Municipal Graft and Scandal As their influences grew, political bosses fell victim to corruption. Some turned to fraud, which included using fake names. Once the candidates were in office, they took advantage of opportunities for graft, or the illegal use of political influence for personal gain. Ex.- find work for a person on a construction project for the city, then ask him to bill the city for more than the actual cost. The worker “kicked back” a portion of the earnings to the machine(and individuals)
Cont… Machines also granted favors to businesses in return for cash and bribes for illegal activities(such as gambling). Why no police? Who was Boss Tweed? What did he head? New York County Courthouse project($13 million=charged; $3 million cost) Where did the $10 million go? How was the Tweed Ring broken in 1871? Political cartoon on page 475.
Civil Service Replaces Patronage Not just local, but national political greed! What is patronage/spoils system? Were these people qualified? What’s wrong with this system? Civil service jobs should go to whom? This made progress under Presidents Hayes, Garfield, and Arthur. How did Hayes help civil service?
Cont… Who were the Stalwarts? Arthur was a supporter of whom? Why was he selected as Garfield’s Vice President? Did it work? Why or why not? What happened to Garfield? What happened once Arthur becomes president? What was the Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883? What was its importance? Where would politicians turn for sources of donations? What alliance was now made? 1884-Cleveland wins(first democrat in 28 years!)
Cont… 1888-Harrison wins presidential election, financed by large contributions from companies that wanted tariffs even higher than they were.(Why?-foreign competition) What did the McKinley Tariff Act of 1890 do? 1892-Cleveland wins again(only two non- consecutive terms) Supported a bill for lowering the tariffs but didn’t sign it b/c it provided a federal income tax. 1897-McKinley wins presidency and raised tariffs again!