Presentation on theme: "The Emergence of Political Machines Political Machine- an organized group that controlled the activities of a political party in a city. They also offered."— Presentation transcript:
The Emergence of Political Machines Political Machine- an organized group that controlled the activities of a political party in a city. They also offered services to voters and businesses in exchange for political or financial support.
Municipal Graft and Scandal Graft- the illegal use of political influence for personal gain. “Kick-backs”- illegal payments for services.
Municipal Graft and Scandal William M. Tweed- (Boss Tweed) Became head of Tammany Hall, New York City’s powerful Democratic political machine, in 1868. Between 1869-1871, he led the Tweed Ring; a group of corrupt politicians, in defrauding the city. Thomas Nast- a political cartoonist, helped arouse public outrage against Tammany Hall’s graft, and the Tweed Ring was broken in 1871.
Civil Service Replaces Patronage Patronage- The giving of government jobs to people who helped a candidate get elected. (The Spoils System) Civil Service- Government administration
Civil Service Replaces Patronage Rutherford B. Hayes- Republican, elected in 1876. Could not convince Congress to support reform, so he used other means. -Named independents to his cabinet -Set up commission to investigate the nation’s custom houses. -Fired two top officials of New York City’s custom house.
Civil Service Replaces Patronage James A. Garfield- Ohio Congressman, elected President in 1880. Independent candidate with ties to reformers. Chester A. Arthur- Stalwart who was nominated for Vice-President to balance out Garfield’s ties to reformers.
Civil Service Replaces Patronage Pendleton Civil Service Act-(1883) authorized a bipartisan civil service commission to make appointments to federal jobs through a merit system based on candidates’ performance on an examination.
Business Buys Influence Grover Cleveland- Elected President in 1884 and 1892. First Democrat in 28 years. Only President to serve two non- consecutive terms. In favor of low tariffs. Benjamin Harrison- Elected President in 1888. In favor of high tariffs. Backed by big business.