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The Emergence of the Political Machine & Politics of the Gilded Age

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1 The Emergence of the Political Machine & Politics of the Gilded Age
Chapter 15 Sections 1 & 2

2 I Political Machines Industrialization, rapid urbanization, & Social Darwinism opened door for the political machine, city boss, & graft to take hold Graft=illegal use of political influence for personal gain

3 A. The Political Machine
Political machine= organized group that controlled activities of a pol. Party in a city who offered services to voters & businessed in exchange for pol. and financial support

4 Precinct captainsward bosscity boss
In return for securing votes they get city jobs Gained support of poor by doing favors & provided services

5 B. The Role of the political machines
City boss controlled city jobs, business licenses, influenced cts., provided gov’t support for businesses some owed influence to solve prob. Of urbanization Solving problems= ensure voters support

6 C. Immigrants & the Political Machine
Immigrants received services from political machines & in turn became loyal supporters Many bosses were 1 or 2 gen. removed which allowed them to understand immigrant struggle & speak their language

7 II Municipal Graft and Scandal
Many political machines and bosses gave into greed & corruption as their power grew

8 A. Election Fraud & Graft
Bosses increase vote count by used dog names, children, & ppl who have died Once candidate is elected, they could take advantage of opportunity for graft Hire construction co. for projectbill higher than actual cost> extra $$ kicked back into the political machine Kick backs=illegal payments Kickbacks made machine & politicians wealthy Police didn’t interfere because they were hired by bosses

9 B. The Tweed Ring Scandal
William tweed=head of Tammany hall & tweed ring Tweed Ring= a group of corrupt politicians led by boss tweed Tweed Ring constructs NY county Ct. Housecharge tax payers 11 mil when it really cost 3 mil Eventually indicted and jailed

10 III Civil Service Replaces Patronage A. Patronage & the Spoils System
Patronage= giving gov’t jobs to people who had helped the candidate get elected Spoils system went as far back as Jefferson Some appointed to jobs were nor qualified 7 those who were sometimes used influence for personal gain Interfered with daily functioning of gov’t because every new administration brought in their own ppl

11 Reformers called for federal merit system to replace spoils system
Civil service jobs, or jobs in gov;t administration, would go to most qualified Ppl kept jobs as long as they preformed satisfactory

12 B. Hayes Launches Reforms
Could not get support for civil service ideas Began to name independents to cabinet Cabinet members fired clerks who had no job to do (unheard of) Set up commission to investigate notoriously corrupt custom houses Fired 2 top officials in NY custom house Upset NY city Boss Conkling and his Stalwarts gang

13 C. Garfield Continues Reform
Rep. party split with some wanting reform while other did not Reformers also split btwn those who wanted complete change and those who remained loyal to Rep. party Rep. party select Garfield as pres. Candidate and Arthur as VP (Arthur 1 of officials fired) Garfield gives jobs to reformers once elected Garfield assassinated by a Stalwart

14 D. Arthur Turns Reformer and Supports Civil Service
Turned reformer once in office Congress passes Pendleton Act at Arthur’s urging Pendleton Act= authorized bipartisan civil service commision to make appointments to fed. Jobs PA had 2 consequences Increased fed. Jobs held by qualified ppl & public admin became honest & efficient Politicians could no longer get $ for campaigns from politicians so they turn to big business for $$

15 IV Efforts to Regulate Tariffs Fail
Another issue addressed were tariffs Everyone agreed tariffs were necessary to protect Amer. business but they caused prices to rise The question was how high the tariffs should be

16 A. Harrison & High Tariffs-1; Cleveland-0
Cleveland tried to lower tariffs but congress refused to support him Runs for re-election under low-tariff platform against Benjamin Harris Harrison campaign finances by co. who wanted higher tariffs Harrison wins electoral vote but no pop. Vote & passes McKinley Tariff McKinley Tariff Act raises tariffs to highest level ever

17 B. Cleveland Tries Again
Successfully runs for re-election the following election yr. Cleveland the only president to serve 2 nonconsecutive terms Refused to sign a bill that would lower tariffs because it included fed. Income tax The bill becomes law without his signature McKinley wins next pres. Election & raised tariffs again

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