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Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that website is available. Images lacking photo credits are mine and, as long as you are engaged in non-profit educational missions, you have my permission to use my images and slides in your teaching. However, please notice that some of the images in these slides have an associated URL photo credit to provide you with the location of their original source within internet cyberspace. Those images may have separate copyright protection. If you are seeking permission for use of those images, you need to consult the original sources for such permission; they are NOT mine to give you permission.
Biology: life study of What is Life? Cellular Structure: the unit of life, one or many Growth: cell enlargement, cell number Evolution: long term adaptation Behavior: short term response to stimuli Reproduction: avoid extinction at death Metabolism: photosynthesis, respiration, fermentation, digestion, gas exchange, secretion, excretion, circulation--processing materials and energy Movement: intracellular, movement, locomotion Properties of Life
Obtaining Food Heterotrophs need to feed on other organisms, their by- products, or their dead bodies to survive
Heterotrophic Organisms Herbivores: feed directly upon producers Carnivores: feed directly upon herbivores or other carnivores Omnivores: feed upon both producers and consumers Parasites: feed upon living organisms causing disease Saprobes: feed upon by-products and/or dead bodies (aka detritivore) Food is required as fuel for respiration: Cytosolic Glycolysis: sugars to pyruvate Mitochondrial Matrix Krebs Cycle: pyruvate to CO 2 and NADH Mitochondrial Cristae ETS/Oxidative Phosphorylation: NADH and O 2 to H 2 O and ADP + P i to ATP
Prokaryotes intake small organics from the surrounding medium… by facilitated diffusion or active transport across cell membrane Digestive enzymes secreted into the medium convert macromolecules into subunits for uptake Thus digestion is extracellular
The feeding of Paramecium itself is also internal digestion: capture cilia movement oral groove (alveolus) cytopharynx (mouth) macronucleus micronucleus food vacuole endocytosis (phagocytosis) exocytosis (anal pore) contractile vacuole enzymatic digestion subunit absorption waste elimination
lysosome Golgi endoplasmic reticulum food vacuole digestive vacuole exo- cytosis subunits enzymes waste Intracellular food digestion: phago- cytosis 1.phagocytosis of food 2.food vacuole and lysosome formation 3.lysosome + food vacuole = digestive vacuole 4.enzymatic digestion of food 5.absorption of subunits 6.exocytosis of waste
Obtaining Food The origin of animals? Most primitive animal? Parazoa (no true tissues) –sponges Metazoa (true tissues) –other animals Is there an protozoan that acts and eats like an animal? Choanoflagellates Choanocytes sponge feeding cells very similar! flagellum (undulipodium) microvilli cell body
Porifera – primitive animal 1.Incurrent pores: ostia 2.Body wall: choanocytes for filter feeding 3.Excurrent pore: osculum (here huge) 4.Body wall has mineral spicules 5.High cellular mobility and totipotency Photo credit: Mike please provide original source of this image
mouth radula valve plates gonad heart pericardial cavity (coelom) mantle anus foot digestive gland nephridium stomach ventral nerve cord (not shown) This cartoon shows a longitudinal slice of a chiton with the three principal parts: foot (locomotion or attachment), visceral mass (internal organs), and mantle (secretes the valves). The radula scrapes food from environmental surfaces. auricle ventricle nephridiopore gonopore hemocoel dorsal aorta …a tubular digestive system
As for most molluscs, chitons use a radula to scrape their food from environmental surfaces. Below is a radula removed from a chiton mouth. Bivalve molluscs are filter feeders, however.
Mollusc – Feeding Photos: Cleveland P. Hickman, Jr.
molting animals: shed their exoskeleton to grow What does this mean? Not a tetrachotomy! The parsimonious dichotomies are still unknown Ecdysozoa Phylogeny
Chitin Hard exoskeleton Fungi, Nematodes, Tardigrades Arthropods, insects and crustaceans Malpighian tubules Cyclomorphosis ß 1-4 glycosidic bond like cellulose, but includes a nitrogen atom. Difficult to digest. Chitinase/cellulase only produced in certain organisms. O CH 2 OH OH H NHNH O=C CH 3 H O H H O N-acetyl glucosamine O CH 2 OH OH H NHNH O=C CH 3 H H H O CH 2 OH OH H NHNH O=C CH 3 H O H H O LM or SEM?
Nematode Tubular Digestive System Stylet Esophagus Digestive glands Intestine Anus
Spider Anatomy: Not that different from a mollusc in many ways… but are not in Phylum Mollusca…They are Phylum Arthropoda but not Class Insecta. Fang injects venom with digestive enzymes into prey The chelicera support tube as stomach sucks in liquified prey tissues Food passes through intestines for complete digestion/absorption Waste eliminated from anus Sub-Phylum: Chelicerata Class: Arachnida Spinnerets extrude silk fibers organized to capture prey to be food. octopod
Insecta: the largest class of Arthropods Out-numbers all other animals combined! Found in just about every environment…except marine! Entomology: the study of insects Evolved in Devonian period 400 MYBP smelling food seeing food hexapod
A look inside the digestive system: Mandibles chop food sideways Stomach holds food, grinds food Digestive gland injects enzymes Intestine absorbs subunits Rectum dehydrates wastes Anus ejects fecal pellet Stomach Rectum Digestive Gland Intestine (hindgut)
Cycliophoran attached to lobster mouthparts. May be several species on a single animal. Discovery 1995! Photo credit: Mike please provide original source of this image…is this a maxilliped? jointed mouthparts for grasping, tearing food
esophagus gizzard crop intestine stomach rectum cloaca Most birds have a crop for holding food to feed offspring. The gizzard assists in mechanical grinding of food. The intestine does: enzymatic digestion subunit uptake The rectum holds and partially dehydrates waste The cloaca is a single passage area for: digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems
Horses cannot digest much of their food. Microbes are only in the caecum. Horse manure makes good compost and food for fungi. Equus caballus Why did the Franklin Mushroom Farm move to PA?
Because their microbes are in their caecum too, rabbits pass material through their digestive system twice. Recent meals pass as cecotropes, which the rabbit eats to re-digest the materials that the microbes liberate. As cecotropes pass through the second time, they are dehydrated as the familiar rabbit pellets. Oryctolagus cuniculus
Digestion of polysaccharides amylase Starch maltase Maltose Glucose These monosaccharides are ready for absorption from the digestive system. glu -1,4 glycosidic bond
terminal AA removers dipeptide splitter Individual Amino Acids For Absorption in Small Intestine Protein digestion in mammals: HisGluTyrThrLysHisGluSerArgAspTrpThrPhe amino end carboxyl end Stomach Pancreas pepsin HisGluTyrThrLysHisGluSerArgAspTrpThrPhe HisGluTyrThrLysHisGluSerArgAspTrpThrPhe HisGluTyrThrLysHisGluSerArgAspTrpThrPhe HisGluTyrThrLysHisGluSerArgAspTrpThrPhe trypsin chymotrypsin carboxypeptidaseaminopeptidase dipeptidase Proteins are polymers of some 22 different amino acids Enzymes cleave the peptide bond during… recognize phenolic AA, cleave amino side recognize phenolic AA, cleave carboxyl side recognize basic AA, cleave carboxyl side cleave AA from amino endcleave AA from carboxyl end recognize dipeptide, cleave peptide bond
>75% Dutch, Swedes, Danes, Swiss, US Whites, Germans, Slavs, Northern French, Northern Italians, Tutsi, Fulani (milk traditionally in adult diet) <60% Indian, Southern Italians, Saami, US Hispanics, Balkans, Mexicans, Maasai, Southern French, Greeks, South Americans, African Americans, Lebanese <20% Central Asians, Eskimo, Australian Aborigines, Bantu, Chinese, Southeast Asians, Native Americans (no milk in traditional adult diet) Having mutation in adult shutdown of lactase production In normal human genotypes, adult lactase production is shut down. Fermentation of milk-based food only occurs by bacteria in the large intestine. This results in cramps, gas, and diarrhea! Lactose intolerance. lactoseglucose + galactose lactase