Presentation on theme: "Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that."— Presentation transcript:
1Copyright Notice!This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that website is available. Images lacking photo credits are mine and, as long as you are engaged in non-profit educational missions, you have my permission to use my images and slides in your teaching. However, please notice that some of the images in these slides have an associated URL photo credit to provide you with the location of their original source within internet cyberspace. Those images may have separate copyright protection. If you are seeking permission for use of those images, you need to consult the original sources for such permission; they are NOT mine to give you permission.
2Biology: What is Life? life study of Properties of Life Cellular Structure: the unit of life, one or manyMetabolism: photosynthesis, respiration, fermentation, digestion, gas exchange, secretion, excretion, circulation--processing materials and energyGrowth: cell enlargement, cell numberMovement: intracellular, movement, locomotionReproduction: avoid extinction at deathBehavior: short term response to stimuliEvolution: long term adaptation
3Obtaining Food Heterotrophs need to Obtaining FoodHeterotrophs need tofeed on other organisms, their by-products, or their dead bodies to survive
4Heterotrophic Organisms Herbivores: feed directly upon producersCarnivores: feed directly upon herbivores or other carnivoresOmnivores: feed upon both producers and consumersParasites: feed upon living organisms causing diseaseSaprobes: feed upon by-products and/or dead bodies (aka detritivore)Food is required as fuel for respiration:Cytosolic Glycolysis: sugars to pyruvateMitochondrial Matrix Krebs Cycle: pyruvate to CO2 and NADHMitochondrial Cristae ETS/Oxidative Phosphorylation: NADH and O2 to H2O and ADP + Pi to ATP
6Prokaryotes intake small organics from the surrounding medium… by facilitated diffusion or active transport across cell membraneThus digestion is extracellularDigestive enzymes secreted into the medium convert macromolecules into subunits for uptake
10The feeding of Paramecium itself is also internal digestion: cytopharynx (mouth)waste eliminationoral groove (alveolus)endocytosis (phagocytosis)cilia movementexocytosis (anal pore)contractile vacuolecapturefood vacuolecontractile vacuolesubunit absorptionenzymatic digestionmicronucleusmacronucleus
11Intracellular food digestion: Golgilysosomeenzymesendoplasmicreticulumsubunitswasteexo-cytosisphago-cytosisfood vacuoledigestive vacuolephagocytosis of foodfood vacuole and lysosome formationlysosome + food vacuole = digestive vacuoleenzymatic digestion of foodabsorption of subunitsexocytosis of waste
12Obtaining Food The origin of animals? flagellum(undulipodium)microvillicell bodyMost primitive “animal”?Parazoa (no true tissues)spongesMetazoa (true tissues)other animalsIs there an protozoan that “acts” and “eats” like an animal?ChoanoflagellatesChoanocytes sponge feeding cells very similar!
13Porifera – primitive animal Incurrent pores: ostiaBody wall: choanocytes for filter feedingExcurrent pore: osculum (here huge)Body wall has mineral spiculesHigh cellular mobility and totipotencyPhoto credit: Mike please provide original source of this image
18The radula scrapes food from environmental surfaces. This cartoon shows a longitudinal slice of a chiton with the three principal parts: foot (locomotion or attachment), visceral mass (internal organs), and mantle (secretes the valves).The radula scrapes food from environmental surfaces.dorsal aortagonadheartvalve platespericardial cavity(coelom)hemocoelventricleradulaauriclemantlemouthanusfootdigestive glandstomachnephridiumnephridioporeventral nerve cord(not shown)gonopore…a tubular digestive system
19As for most molluscs, chitons use a radula to scrape their food from environmental surfaces. Below is a radula removed from a chiton mouth. Bivalve molluscs are filter feeders, however.
20Mollusc – Feeding Photos: Cleveland P. Hickman, Jr.
23molting animals: shed their exoskeleton to grow Ecdysozoa Phylogenymolting animals: shed their exoskeleton to growNot a tetrachotomy!The parsimonious dichotomies are still unknownWhat does this mean?
24Chitin LM or SEM? Hard exoskeleton Fungi, Nematodes, Tardigrades Arthropods, insects and crustaceansMalpighian tubulesCyclomorphosisLM or SEM?OCH2OHOHHNHO=CCH3ß 1-4 glycosidic bond like cellulose, but includes a nitrogen atom.Difficult to digest.Chitinase/cellulase only produced in certain organisms.N-acetyl glucosamineOCH2OHOHHNHO=CCH3
25Nematode Tubular Digestive System Nematode Tubular Digestive SystemStyletEsophagusDigestive glandsAnusIntestine
26Nematode Diseases of Humans Thread WormWhipwormPinwormTrichinosisHookwormFilarial worms (elephantiasis, filariasis)
27Spinnerets extrude silk fibers organized to capture prey to be food. Spider Anatomy: Not that different from a mollusc in many ways… but are not in Phylum Mollusca…They are Phylum Arthropoda but not Class Insecta.Fang injects venom with digestive enzymes into preyThe chelicera support tube as stomach sucks in liquified prey tissuesFood passes through intestines for complete digestion/absorptionWaste eliminated from anusSpinnerets extrude silk fibers organized to capture prey to be food.octopodSub-Phylum: Chelicerata Class: Arachnida
28Insecta: the largest class of Arthropods Out-numbers all other animals combined!Found in just about every environment…except marine!Entomology: the study of insectsEvolved in Devonian period 400 MYBPsmelling foodseeing foodhexapod
31jointed mouthparts for grasping, tearing food Photo credit: Mike please provide original source of this image…is this a maxilliped?Cycliophoran attached to lobster mouthparts. May be several species on a single animal. Discovery 1995!
33Most birds have a crop for holding food to feed offspring. The gizzard assists in mechanical grinding of food.The intestine does:enzymatic digestionsubunit uptakeesophagusintestinestomachgizzardcroprectumcloacaThe rectum holds and partially dehydrates wasteThe cloaca is a single passage area for:digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems
46Why did the Franklin Mushroom Farm move to PA? Equus caballus Horses cannot digest much of their food. Microbes are only in the caecum. Horse manure makes good compost and food for fungi.Why did the Franklin Mushroom Farm move to PA?Equus caballus
47Oryctolagus cuniculus Because their microbes are in their caecum too, rabbits pass material through their digestive system twice. Recent meals pass as cecotropes, which the rabbit eats to re-digest the materials that the microbes liberate. As cecotropes pass through the second time, they are dehydrated as the familiar rabbit pellets.Oryctolagus cuniculus
50Digestion of polysaccharides -1,4 glycosidic bond StarchamylaseamylaseamylasegluMaltoseGlucosemaltasemaltaseGlucoseThese monosaccharides are ready for absorption from the digestive system.
51Protein digestion in mammals: Proteins are polymers of some 22 different amino acidsEnzymes cleave the peptide bond during…Protein digestion in mammals:Stomachpepsinrecognize phenolic AA, cleave amino sideamino endHisGluTyrThrLysHisGluSerArgAspTrpThrPhecarboxyl endrecognize phenolic AA, cleave carboxyl sidePancreaschymotrypsintrypsinrecognize basic AA, cleave carboxyl sideHisGluTyrThrLysSerArgAspTrpPhecleave AA from amino endcleave AA from carboxyl endterminal AA removersaminopeptidasecarboxypeptidaseHisGluTyrThrLysSerArgAspTrpPhedipeptide splitterrecognize dipeptide, cleave peptide bonddipeptidaseHisGluTyrThrLysSerArgAspTrpPheHisGluTyrThrLysSerArgAspTrpPheIndividual Amino Acids For Absorption in Small Intestine
53pancreatic chymotrypsin Summary of macromolecule digestion into subunitsPolysaccharidesstarch(amylose)DisaccharidesmaltosesucroselactoseMonosaccharidesgluosefrucosegalactosesalivary amylasepancreatic amylaseintestinalmaltasesucraselactaseProteinsPeptidesAmino AcidsEndopeptidases:stomach pepsinpancreatic trypsinpancreatic chymotrypsinExopeptidases:pancreaticintestinalmonoglyceridespancreatic lipaseEmulsified fatsFats (triglycerides)fatty acidsliver bileglyceroldirect absorption
54Having mutation in adult shutdown of lactase production lactoseglucose + galactoseIn normal human genotypes, adult lactase production is shut down. Fermentation of milk-based food only occurs by bacteria in the large intestine. This results in cramps, gas, and diarrhea! Lactose intolerance.Having mutation in adult shutdown of lactase production>75% Dutch, Swedes, Danes, Swiss, US Whites, Germans, Slavs, Northern French, Northern Italians, Tutsi, Fulani (milk traditionally in adult diet)<60% Indian, Southern Italians, Saami, US Hispanics, Balkans, Mexicans, Maasai, Southern French, Greeks, South Americans, African Americans, Lebanese<20% Central Asians, Eskimo, Australian Aborigines, Bantu, Chinese, Southeast Asians, Native Americans (no milk in traditional adult diet)