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Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that website is available. Images lacking photo credits are mine and, as long as you are engaged in non-profit educational missions, you have my permission to use my images and slides in your teaching. However, please notice that some of the images in these slides have an associated URL photo credit to provide you with the location of their original source within internet cyberspace. Those images may have separate copyright protection. If you are seeking permission for use of those images, you need to consult the original sources for such permission; they are NOT mine to give you permission.

2 esophagus gizzard crop intestine stomach rectum cloaca The rectum holds and partially dehydrates waste The cloaca is a single passage area for: digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems Most birds have a crop for holding food to feed offspring. The gizzard assists in mechanical grinding of food. The intestine does: enzymatic digestion subunit uptake

3 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company In most vertebrates, digestion begins with mastication using teeth Infection of the gums (periodontitis) is associated with endocarditis! In humans, tools (knives, blender, cooking pots) are used to initiate food preparation externally! Human Molar l.s. connective tissue bone

4 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Dentition may include cutting, tearing, and grinding teeth Juvenile teeth may be replaced by adult teeth cutting tearing grinding Human dentition indicates we are omnivores!

5 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company snake beaver deer dog Among vertebrates the dentition has functional significance: grasping and angled back for swallowing prey whole muscular lips tear off leaves, molars grind them Huge indeterminate incisors slash into young tree trunks, molars grind plant material large canine teeth and pointed molars (more like canines), designed for tearing animal flesh…minimal grinding of tissue

6 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company The human digestive system: amylase Not shown: ventilation system connects at glottis in throat (pharynx) peristalsis

7 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company The movement of food in the digestive tube is by peristalsis

8 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company The human digestive system: amylase pepsin, HCl bile (emulsifier) trypsin, amylase, H 2 CO 3 (alk), lipase subunit absorption bacterial culture unknown water reabsorption waste holding, elimination acidic portion alkaline portion


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