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Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that website is available. Images lacking photo credits are mine and, as long as you are engaged in non-profit educational missions, you have my permission to use my images and slides in your teaching. However, please notice that some of the images in these slides have an associated URL photo credit to provide you with the location of their original source within internet cyberspace. Those images may have separate copyright protection. If you are seeking permission for use of those images, you need to consult the original sources for such permission; they are NOT mine to give you permission.
Tropical Biology (Costa Rica) Biology 320 May 20-31, 2008 Register for Bio 360 and 320 for Spring $1900 approximate cost Scholarships Available! For more information: Dr. Elliott or Dr. Szczys G113 or Planetarium EML
ECSU Biology Club Meetings: Tuesdays, 5 PM, Goddard Lobby House Party 9 PM November 13 Student Center Theater Food etc.
Quiz 7: Highest score was one-question wrong. Congratulations ! Next-highest scores were 3 questions wrong…so I decided to adjust by 3 questions rather than 1. Obviously then, the highlighted score should be three columns to the left of what you earned. And for that one person…the resulting maximum score was 104.8% The Quiz 7 average was 70.9% The Course average of averages was 79.9% Next assignment due: Seed Germination Worksheet page 1 and 2 ONLY Monday, October 22, Please pick up two sample journal articles
Biology: life study of What is Life? Cellular Structure: the unit of life, one or many Growth: cell enlargement, cell number Evolution: long term adaptation Behavior: short term response to stimuli Reproduction: avoid extinction at death Metabolism: photosynthesis, respiration, fermentation, digestion, gas exchange, secretion, excretion, circulation--processing materials and energy Movement: intracellular, movement, locomotion Properties of Life
Obtaining Food Heterotrophs need to feed on other organisms, their by- products, or their dead bodies to survive
Heterotrophic Organisms Herbivores: feed directly upon producers Carnivores: feed directly upon herbivores or other carnivores Omnivores: feed upon both producers and consumers Parasites: feed upon living organisms causing disease Saprobes: feed upon by-products and/or dead bodies Food is required as fuel for respiration: Cytosolic Glycolysis: sugars to pyruvate Mitochondrial Matrix Krebs Cycle: pyruvate to CO 2 and NADH Mitochondrial Cristae ETS/Oxidative Phosphorylation: NADH and O 2 to H 2 O and ADP + P i to ATP
Prokaryotes intake small organics from the surrounding medium… by facilitated diffusion or active transport across cell membrane Digestive enzymes secreted into the medium convert macromolecules into subunits for uptake
Spring 2007 Registration Advising Go to the office of your academic advisor… do not telephone her/him! Danielle, Tina, Heather, Carlos: Media 224 Make an appointment… usually by sign-up sheet posted on the door Freshmen (<30 cr): November Sophomores (30-<60 cr): November 5-9 Juniors (60-<90 cr): Oct 29-Nov 2 Seniors (>90 cr): THIS WEEK! Karl: The instructions for Seed Germination work in Excel 2007 Seed Germination Worksheet (pg 1 and 2 only) is due today.
mouth radula valve plates gonad heart pericardial cavity (coelom) mantle anus foot digestive gland nephridium stomach ventral nerve cord (not shown) This cartoon shows a longitudinal slice of a chiton with the three principal parts: foot (locomotion or attachment), visceral mass (internal organs), and mantle (secretes valves). The radula scrapes food from environmental surfaces. auricle ventricle nephridiopore gonopore hemocoel dorsal aorta
As for most molluscs, chitons use a radula to scrape their food from environmental surfaces. Below is a radula removed from a chiton mouth. Bivalve molluscs are filter feeders, however.
Spider Anatomy: Not that different from a mollusc in many ways. Fang injects venom with digestive enzymes into prey The chelicera support tube as stomach sucks in liquified prey tissues Food passes through intestines for complete digestion/absorption Waste eliminated from anus
Insecta: the largest class out-numbers all other animals combined! Just about every environment…except marine! Entomology: the study of insects Evolved in Devonian period 400 MYBP
A look inside: Insects have the open circulation system found in chitons, etc. The segmentation is not too far from the annelids. Much of the internal system is similar to molluscs. The major difference: spiracles on abdominal segments lead to tracheal tubes inside for gas exchange
esophagus gizzard crop intestine stomach rectum cloaca Most birds have a crop for holding food to feed offspring. The gizzard assists in mechanical grinding of food. The cloaca is a single exit for: digestive urinary reproductive systems
Seed Germination (page 1 and 2 only) 4 perfect papers…Congratulations! Average: 93.3% Scores will be included in course grade on next quiz. Get to work on creating your Z-test spreadsheet This will compare any treatment with its control. You will use the spreadsheet several times for this term project…so get going on it. Again, thanks to Karl for verifying that Office 2007 can use the instructions on page 5 of handout.
<25% Dutch, Swedes, Danes, Swiss, US Whites, Germans, Slavs, Northern French, Northern Italians, Tutsi, Fulani (milk in adult diet) >40% Indian, Southern Italians, Saami, US Hispanics, Balkans, Mexicans, Maasai, Southern French, Greeks, South Americans, African Americans, Lebanese >80% Central Asians, Eskimo, Australian Aborigines, Bantu, Chinese, Southeast Asians, Native Americans (no milk in adult diet) Lacking mutation in adult shutdown of lactase production In normal human genotypes, adult lactase production is shut down, making fermentation of milk products only by bacteria in the large intestine result in cramps, gas, and diarrhea. lactoseglucose + galactose lactase