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Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that website is available. Images lacking photo credits are mine and, as long as you are engaged in non-profit educational missions, you have my permission to use my images and slides in your teaching. However, please notice that some of the images in these slides have an associated URL photo credit to provide you with the location of their original source within internet cyberspace. Those images may have separate copyright protection. If you are seeking permission for use of those images, you need to consult the original sources for such permission; they are NOT mine to give you permission.

2 Tropical Biology (Costa Rica) Biology 320 May 20-31, 2008 Register for Bio 360 and 320 for Spring $1900 approximate cost Scholarships Available! For more information: Dr. Elliott or Dr. Szczys G113 or Planetarium EML

3 ECSU Biology Club Meetings: Tuesdays, 5 PM, Goddard Lobby House Party 9 PM November 13 Student Center Theater Food etc.

4 Quiz 7: Highest score was one-question wrong. Congratulations ! Next-highest scores were 3 questions wrong…so I decided to adjust by 3 questions rather than 1. Obviously then, the highlighted score should be three columns to the left of what you earned. And for that one person…the resulting maximum score was 104.8% The Quiz 7 average was 70.9% The Course average of averages was 79.9% Next assignment due: Seed Germination Worksheet page 1 and 2 ONLY Monday, October 22, Please pick up two sample journal articles

5 Biology: life study of What is Life? Cellular Structure: the unit of life, one or many Growth: cell enlargement, cell number Evolution: long term adaptation Behavior: short term response to stimuli Reproduction: avoid extinction at death Metabolism: photosynthesis, respiration, fermentation, digestion, gas exchange, secretion, excretion, circulation--processing materials and energy Movement: intracellular, movement, locomotion Properties of Life

6 Obtaining Food Heterotrophs need to feed on other organisms, their by- products, or their dead bodies to survive

7 Heterotrophic Organisms Herbivores: feed directly upon producers Carnivores: feed directly upon herbivores or other carnivores Omnivores: feed upon both producers and consumers Parasites: feed upon living organisms causing disease Saprobes: feed upon by-products and/or dead bodies Food is required as fuel for respiration: Cytosolic Glycolysis: sugars to pyruvate Mitochondrial Matrix Krebs Cycle: pyruvate to CO 2 and NADH Mitochondrial Cristae ETS/Oxidative Phosphorylation: NADH and O 2 to H 2 O and ADP + P i to ATP

8 Here is an invertebrate animal collecting plant byproducts. Nectar is a good supply of carbohydrate…not much else Pollen is a better supply of protein, vitamins, and minerals ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company

9 Prokaryotes intake small organics from the surrounding medium… by facilitated diffusion or active transport across cell membrane Digestive enzymes secreted into the medium convert macromolecules into subunits for uptake

10 Here is a fungus body…these penetrate living or dead tissues… The haustoria digest the cells they penetrate or siphon off cellular components to support the fungal mycelium. Fungal digestion is basically EXTERNAL. Digestive enzymes are secreted into the food Subunits are absorbed by diffusion and active transport saprobeparasite ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company

11 These fungi are more active in their feeding... They trap and strangle their nematode prey: Dactylella drechsleri B Arthrobotrys dactyloides sticky traps lasso What is the difference between these two images? ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company

12 The feeding of two Paramecium by one Amoeba Paramecium Amoeba engulfing prey by phagocytosis entrapment in food vacuole for digestion An example of internal digestion ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company

13 The feeding of Paramecium itself is also internal digestion: capture 2.phagocytosis 3.enzymatic digestion 4.subunit absorption 5.waste elimination cilia movement ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company

14 lysosome Golgi endoplasmic reticulum food vacuole digestive vacuole exo- cytosis subunits enzymes waste Intracellular food digestion: phago- cytosis 1.phagocytosis of food 2.food vacuole formation 3.lysosome + food vacuole = digestive vacuole 4.enzymatic digestion of food 5.absorption of subunits 6.exocytosis of waste

15 Gastrovascular cavity digestion in Cnidarian polyp gland cell secretes digestive enzymes to disintegrate prey item into smaller particles digestive cell takes in smaller particles for intracellular digestion This is a combination of external and internal digestion There is also a unique prey capture process in cnidarians ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company and anus!

16 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Cnidoblasts (cyan) contain nematocysts (yellow and blue) This feature of cnidarians is perhaps most famous in the scyphozoans (jellyfish) and hydrozoans (Portuguese-man-o-war)

17 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company In flatworms, such as Dugesia, and like cnidarians, the mouth is also the anus…the digestive system is a blind pouch. Notice the corrugations to increase the surface area for nutrient absorption.

18 Nematode Tubular Digestive System

19 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Earthworms also have a tubular digestive system

20 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Earthworms also have a tubular digestive system

21 Spring 2007 Registration Advising Go to the office of your academic advisor… do not telephone her/him! Danielle, Tina, Heather, Carlos: Media 224 Make an appointment… usually by sign-up sheet posted on the door Freshmen (<30 cr): November Sophomores (30-<60 cr): November 5-9 Juniors (60-<90 cr): Oct 29-Nov 2 Seniors (>90 cr): THIS WEEK! Karl: The instructions for Seed Germination work in Excel 2007 Seed Germination Worksheet (pg 1 and 2 only) is due today.

22 mouth radula valve plates gonad heart pericardial cavity (coelom) mantle anus foot digestive gland nephridium stomach ventral nerve cord (not shown) This cartoon shows a longitudinal slice of a chiton with the three principal parts: foot (locomotion or attachment), visceral mass (internal organs), and mantle (secretes valves). The radula scrapes food from environmental surfaces. auricle ventricle nephridiopore gonopore hemocoel dorsal aorta

23 As for most molluscs, chitons use a radula to scrape their food from environmental surfaces. Below is a radula removed from a chiton mouth. Bivalve molluscs are filter feeders, however.

24 Spider Anatomy: Not that different from a mollusc in many ways. Fang injects venom with digestive enzymes into prey The chelicera support tube as stomach sucks in liquified prey tissues Food passes through intestines for complete digestion/absorption Waste eliminated from anus

25 Insecta: the largest class out-numbers all other animals combined! Just about every environment…except marine! Entomology: the study of insects Evolved in Devonian period 400 MYBP

26 A look inside: Insects have the open circulation system found in chitons, etc. The segmentation is not too far from the annelids. Much of the internal system is similar to molluscs. The major difference: spiracles on abdominal segments lead to tracheal tubes inside for gas exchange

27 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company This female mosquito has a diverticulum to hold a blood meal The animal lives for 4-5 days on this one meal The protein is used for laying a raft of eggs in water

28 esophagus gizzard crop intestine stomach rectum cloaca Most birds have a crop for holding food to feed offspring. The gizzard assists in mechanical grinding of food. The cloaca is a single exit for: digestive urinary reproductive systems

29 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Blue whales and other baleen whales are filter feeders You can see the baleen (teeth) of this whale that filter out krill

30 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company In most vertebrates, digestion begins with mastication using teeth

31 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Dentition may include cutting, tearing, and grinding teeth Juvenile teeth may be replaced by adult teeth

32 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company snake beaver deer dog Among vertebrates the dentition has functional significance:

33 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company The human digestive system: amylase pepsin, HCl bile (emulsifier) trypsin, amylase, H 2 CO 3 (alk), lipase subunit absorption bacterial culture unknown water reabsorption waste holding, elimination

34 Seed Germination (page 1 and 2 only) 4 perfect papers…Congratulations! Average: 93.3% Scores will be included in course grade on next quiz. Get to work on creating your Z-test spreadsheet This will compare any treatment with its control. You will use the spreadsheet several times for this term project…so get going on it. Again, thanks to Karl for verifying that Office 2007 can use the instructions on page 5 of handout.

35 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company The movement of food in the digestive tube is by parastalsis

36 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company To increase the surface area of the absorptive regions of the intestine, the lining is corrugated and lined with villi

37 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company An intestinal cross section reveals the increased surface area:

38 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company The villi of the intestine have good blood supply for nutrient uptake Notice how the villus is coated with microvilli…for more area!

39 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Here you can see the microvilli from a single villus villus microvilli

40 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company The carnivorous adult has a shorter digestive system than The herbivorous larva: Can you speculate why this might have evolved?

41 Horses cannot digest much of their food. Microbes are only in the caecum. Horse manure makes good compost and food for fungi. Equus caballus

42 Because their microbes are in their caecum too, rabbits pass material through their digestive system twice. Oryctolagus cuniculus

43 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Ruminant animals use bacteria and archaeons to assist digestion In ruminants, the microbe culture is mixed with masticated food in the rumen. The mixture is masticated repeatedly (chewing the cud) from this rumen to assist fermentation… especially hydrolysis of cellulose. Then the mixture passes to the rest of the digestive system Bos taurus

44 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company The herbivorous tropical bird, the hoatzin, uses a muscular crop for its fermentation vat. It can represent 20% of the birds total weight! It is a poor flier. Its young falling, into swamps below, crawl back up into the nest using claws on the wings (like dinosaurs). Opisthocomus hoazin

45 Digestion of polysaccharides amylase Starch maltase Maltose Glucose maltase Glucose

46 terminal AA removers dipeptide splitter Individual Amino Acids For Absorption Protein digestion in mammals: HisGluTyrThrLysHisGluSerArgAspTrpThrPhe amino end carboxyl end Stomach Pancreas pepsin HisGluTyrThrLysHisGluSerArgAspTrpThrPhe HisGluTyrThrLysHisGluSerArgAspTrpThrPhe HisGluTyrThrLysHisGluSerArgAspTrpThrPhe HisGluTyrThrLysHisGluSerArgAspTrpThrPhe trypsin chymotrypsin carboxypeptidaseaminopeptidase dipeptidase

47 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Chymotrypsinogen conversion into chymotrypsin Chymotrypsinogen from pancreas Activation by acidic pepsin cleavage Finished chymotrypsin with active site recognizing Tyr, Trp and Phe

48 Summary of macromolecule digestion into subunits Disaccharides maltose sucrose lactose Monosaccharides gluose frucose galactose Polysaccharides starch (amylose) salivary amylase pancreatic amylase intestinal maltase sucrase lactase Proteins Peptides Amino Acids Endopeptidases: stomach pepsin pancreatic trypsin pancreatic chymotrypsin Exopeptidases: pancreatic intestinal Fats (triglycerides) Emulsified fats liver bile monoglycerides fatty acids glycerol direct absorption pancreatic lipase

49 <25% Dutch, Swedes, Danes, Swiss, US Whites, Germans, Slavs, Northern French, Northern Italians, Tutsi, Fulani (milk in adult diet) >40% Indian, Southern Italians, Saami, US Hispanics, Balkans, Mexicans, Maasai, Southern French, Greeks, South Americans, African Americans, Lebanese >80% Central Asians, Eskimo, Australian Aborigines, Bantu, Chinese, Southeast Asians, Native Americans (no milk in adult diet) Lacking mutation in adult shutdown of lactase production In normal human genotypes, adult lactase production is shut down, making fermentation of milk products only by bacteria in the large intestine result in cramps, gas, and diarrhea. lactoseglucose + galactose lactase


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