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1Copyright Notice!This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that website is available. Images lacking photo credits are mine and, as long as you are engaged in non-profit educational missions, you have my permission to use my images and slides in your teaching. However, please notice that some of the images in these slides have an associated URL photo credit to provide you with the location of their original source within internet cyberspace. Those images may have separate copyright protection. If you are seeking permission for use of those images, you need to consult the original sources for such permission; they are NOT mine to give you permission.
2Tropical Biology (Costa Rica) May 20-31, 2008Register for Bio 360 and 320 for Spring$1900 approximate costScholarships Available!For more information:Dr. Elliott or Dr. SzczysG113 or Planetarium EML
3Student Center Theater ECSU Biology ClubMeetings: Tuesdays, 5 PM, Goddard LobbyHouse Party9 PM November 13Student Center TheaterFood etc.
4Quiz 7: Highest score was one-question wrong. Congratulations ! Next-highest scores were 3 questions wrong…so I decided to adjust by 3 questions rather than 1.Obviously then, the highlighted score should be three columns to the left of what you earned. And for that one person…the resulting maximum score was 104.8%The Quiz 7 average was 70.9%The Course average of averages was 79.9%Next assignment due:Seed Germination Worksheet page 1 and 2 ONLY Monday, October 22, 2007.Please pick up two sample journal articles
5Biology: What is Life? life study of Properties of Life Cellular Structure: the unit of life, one or manyMetabolism: photosynthesis, respiration, fermentation, digestion, gas exchange, secretion, excretion, circulation--processing materials and energyGrowth: cell enlargement, cell numberMovement: intracellular, movement, locomotionReproduction: avoid extinction at deathBehavior: short term response to stimuliEvolution: long term adaptation
6Obtaining Food Heterotrophs need to feed on other organisms, their by-products, or their dead bodies to survive
7Heterotrophic Organisms Herbivores: feed directly upon producersCarnivores: feed directly upon herbivores or other carnivoresOmnivores: feed upon both producers and consumersParasites: feed upon living organisms causing diseaseSaprobes: feed upon by-products and/or dead bodiesFood is required as fuel for respiration:Cytosolic Glycolysis: sugars to pyruvateMitochondrial Matrix Krebs Cycle: pyruvate to CO2 and NADHMitochondrial Cristae ETS/Oxidative Phosphorylation: NADH and O2 to H2O and ADP + Pi to ATP
9Prokaryotes intake small organics from the surrounding medium… by facilitated diffusion or active transport across cell membraneDigestive enzymes secreted into the medium convert macromolecules into subunits for uptake
21Spring 2007 Registration Advising Go to the office of your academic advisor… do not telephone her/him!Danielle, Tina, Heather, Carlos: Media 224Make an appointment… usually by sign-up sheet posted on the doorFreshmen (<30 cr): November 26-30Sophomores (30-<60 cr): November 5-9Juniors (60-<90 cr): Oct 29-Nov 2Seniors (>90 cr): THIS WEEK!Karl: The instructions for Seed Germination work in Excel 2007Seed Germination Worksheet (pg 1 and 2 only) is due today.
22The radula scrapes food from environmental surfaces. This cartoon shows a longitudinal slice of a chiton with the three principal parts: foot (locomotion or attachment), visceral mass (internal organs), and mantle (secretes valves).The radula scrapes food from environmental surfaces.dorsal aortagonadheartvalve platespericardial cavity(coelom)hemocoelventricleradulaauriclemantlemouthanusfootdigestive glandstomachnephridiumnephridioporeventral nerve cord(not shown)gonopore
23As for most molluscs, chitons use a radula to scrape their food from environmental surfaces. Below is a radula removed from a chiton mouth. Bivalve molluscs are filter feeders, however.
24Spider Anatomy: Not that different from a mollusc in many ways. Fang injects venom with digestive enzymes into preyThe chelicera support tube as stomach sucks in liquified prey tissuesFood passes through intestines for complete digestion/absorptionWaste eliminated from anus
25Insecta: the largest class out-numbers all other animals combined! Just about every environment…except marine!Entomology: the study of insectsEvolved in Devonian period 400 MYBP
26Insects have the open circulation system found in chitons, etc. A look inside:Insects have the open circulation system found in chitons, etc.The segmentation is not too far from the annelids.Much of the internal system is similar to molluscs.The major difference: spiracles on abdominal segments lead to tracheal tubes inside for gas exchange
28Most birds have a crop for holding food to feed offspring. The gizzard assists in mechanical grinding of food.The cloaca is a single exit for:digestiveurinaryreproductive systemsesophagusintestinestomachgizzardcroprectumcloaca
34Seed Germination (page 1 and 2 only) 4 perfect papers…Congratulations!Average: 93.3%Scores will be included in course grade on next quiz.Get to work on creating your Z-test spreadsheetThis will compare any treatment with its control.You will use the spreadsheet several times for this term project…so get going on it.Again, thanks to Karl for verifying that Office 2007 can use the instructions on page 5 of handout.
45Digestion of polysaccharides StarchamylaseamylaseamylaseMaltoseGlucosemaltasemaltaseGlucose
46Protein digestion in mammals: Stomachpepsinamino endHisGluTyrThrLysHisGluSerArgAspTrpThrPhecarboxyl endPancreaschymotrypsintrypsinHisGluTyrThrLysSerArgAspTrpPheterminal AA removersaminopeptidasecarboxypeptidaseHisGluTyrThrLysSerArgAspTrpPhedipeptide splitterdipeptidaseHisGluTyrThrLysSerArgAspTrpPheHisGluTyrThrLysSerArgAspTrpPheIndividual Amino Acids For Absorption
48pancreatic chymotrypsin Summary of macromolecule digestion into subunitsPolysaccharidesstarch(amylose)DisaccharidesmaltosesucroselactoseMonosaccharidesgluosefrucosegalactosesalivary amylasepancreatic amylaseintestinalmaltasesucraselactaseProteinsPeptidesAmino AcidsEndopeptidases:stomach pepsinpancreatic trypsinpancreatic chymotrypsinExopeptidases:pancreaticintestinalmonoglyceridespancreatic lipaseEmulsified fatsFats (triglycerides)fatty acidsliver bileglyceroldirect absorption
49Lacking mutation in adult shutdown of lactase production lactoseglucose + galactoseIn normal human genotypes, adult lactase production is shut down, making fermentation of milk products only by bacteria in the large intestine result in cramps, gas, and diarrhea.Lacking mutation in adult shutdown of lactase production<25% Dutch, Swedes, Danes, Swiss, US Whites, Germans, Slavs, Northern French, Northern Italians, Tutsi, Fulani (milk in adult diet)>40% Indian, Southern Italians, Saami, US Hispanics, Balkans, Mexicans, Maasai, Southern French, Greeks, South Americans, African Americans, Lebanese>80% Central Asians, Eskimo, Australian Aborigines, Bantu, Chinese, Southeast Asians, Native Americans (no milk in adult diet)