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Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that website is available. Images lacking photo credits are mine and, as long as you are engaged in non-profit educational missions, you have my permission to use my images and slides in your teaching. However, please notice that some of the images in these slides have an associated URL photo credit to provide you with the location of their original source within internet cyberspace. Those images may have separate copyright protection. If you are seeking permission for use of those images, you need to consult the original sources for such permission; they are NOT mine to give you permission.
Biology: life study of What is Life? Cellular Structure: the unit of life, one or many Growth: cell enlargement, cell number Evolution: long term adaptation Behavior: short term response to stimuli Reproduction: avoid extinction at death Metabolism: photosynthesis, respiration, fermentation, digestion, gas exchange, secretion, excretion, circulation--processing materials and energy Movement: intracellular, movement, locomotion Properties of Life
Obtaining Food Heterotrophs need to feed on other organisms, their by- products, or their dead bodies to survive http://www.casarioblanco.com/poison-dart-frog.jpg http://aichlee.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/blue-bird-of-paradise.jpg
Heterotrophic Organisms Herbivores: feed directly upon producers Carnivores: feed directly upon herbivores or other carnivores Omnivores: feed upon both producers and consumers Parasites: feed upon living organisms causing disease Saprobes: feed upon by-products and/or dead bodies aka detritivore Food is required as fuel for respiration: Cytosolic Glycolysis: sugars to pyruvate Mitochondrial Matrix Krebs Cycle: pyruvate to CO 2 and NADH Mitochondrial Cristae ETS/Oxidative Phosphorylation: NADH and O 2 to H 2 O and ADP + P i to ATP
The feeding of Paramecium itself is internal digestion: capture cilia movement oral groove (alveolus) cytopharynx (mouth) macronucleus micronucleus food vacuole endocytosis (phagocytosis) exocytosis (anal pore) contractile vacuole enzymatic digestion subunit absorption waste elimination
http://i.pbase.com/u49/wangi/upload/40767363.P1150275small.jpg esophagus gizzard crop intestine stomach rectum cloaca The rectum holds and partially dehydrates waste The cloaca is a single passage area for: digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems Most birds have a crop for holding food to feed offspring. The gizzard assists in mechanical grinding of food. The intestine does: enzymatic digestion subunit uptake
Digestion of polysaccharides amylase Starch maltase Maltose Glucose These monosaccharides are ready for absorption from the digestive system. glu -1,4 glycosidic bond
terminal AA removers dipeptide splitter Individual Amino Acids For Absorption in Small Intestine Protein digestion in mammals: HisGluTyrThrLysHisGluSerArgAspTrpThrPhe amino end carboxyl end Stomach Pancreas pepsin HisGluTyrThrLysHisGluSerArgAspTrpThrPhe HisGluTyrThrLysHisGluSerArgAspTrpThrPhe HisGluTyrThrLysHisGluSerArgAspTrpThrPhe HisGluTyrThrLysHisGluSerArgAspTrpThrPhe trypsin chymotrypsin carboxypeptidaseaminopeptidase dipeptidase Proteins are polymers of some 22 different amino acids Enzymes cleave the peptide bond during… recognize phenolic AA, cleave amino side recognize phenolic AA, cleave carboxyl side recognize basic AA, cleave carboxyl side cleave AA from amino endcleave AA from carboxyl end recognize dipeptide, cleave peptide bond
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