Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that website is available. Images lacking photo credits are mine and, as long as you are engaged in non-profit educational missions, you have my permission to use my images and slides in your teaching. However, please notice that some of the images in these slides have an associated URL photo credit to provide you with the location of their original source within internet cyberspace. Those images may have separate copyright protection. If you are seeking permission for use of those images, you need to consult the original sources for such permission; they are NOT mine to give you permission.

2 Biology: life study of What is Life? Cellular Structure: the unit of life, one or many Growth: cell enlargement, cell number Evolution: long term adaptation Behavior: short term response to stimuli Reproduction: avoid extinction at death Metabolism: photosynthesis, respiration, fermentation, digestion, gas exchange, secretion, excretion, circulation--processing materials and energy Movement: intracellular, movement, locomotion Properties of Life

3 Obtaining Food Heterotrophs need to feed on other organisms, their by- products, or their dead bodies to survive

4 Heterotrophic Organisms Herbivores: feed directly upon producers Carnivores: feed directly upon herbivores or other carnivores Omnivores: feed upon both producers and consumers Parasites: feed upon living organisms causing disease Saprobes: feed upon by-products and/or dead bodies aka detritivore Food is required as fuel for respiration: Cytosolic Glycolysis: sugars to pyruvate Mitochondrial Matrix Krebs Cycle: pyruvate to CO 2 and NADH Mitochondrial Cristae ETS/Oxidative Phosphorylation: NADH and O 2 to H 2 O and ADP + P i to ATP

5 The feeding of Paramecium itself is internal digestion: capture cilia movement oral groove (alveolus) cytopharynx (mouth) macronucleus micronucleus food vacuole endocytosis (phagocytosis) exocytosis (anal pore) contractile vacuole enzymatic digestion subunit absorption waste elimination

6 lysosome Golgi endoplasmic reticulum food vacuole digestive vacuole exo- cytosis subunits enzymes waste Intracellular food digestion: phago- cytosis 1.phagocytosis of food 2.food vacuole formation 3.lysosome + food vacuole = digestive vacuole 4.enzymatic digestion of food 5.absorption of subunits 6.exocytosis of waste

7 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Earthworms also have a tubular digestive system

8 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Earthworms also have a tubular digestive system intakemuscular grinding enzymatic digestion subunit uptake waste elimination

9 A look inside the digestive system: Mandibles chop food sideways Stomach holds food, grinds food Digestive gland injects enzymes Intestine absorbs subunits Rectum dehydrates wastes Anus ejects fecal pellet

10 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company This female mosquito has sensory organs to locate the victim animal (thermal, CO 2 ) and it’s blood vessels (octenol). She also has a stylet to pierce into an animal’s circulation system. piercing stylet She has a diverticulum to hold the blood meal for later use. She lives for 4-5 days on this one blood meal. The blood protein is used for laying a “raft” of eggs in water.

11 esophagus gizzard crop intestine stomach rectum cloaca The rectum holds and partially dehydrates waste The cloaca is a single passage area for: digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems Most birds have a crop for holding food to feed offspring. The gizzard assists in mechanical grinding of food. The intestine does: enzymatic digestion subunit uptake

12 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company In most vertebrates, digestion begins with mastication using teeth Infection of the gums (periodontitis) is associated with endocarditis! In humans, tools (knives, blender, cooking pots) are used to initiate food preparation externally! Human Molar l.s. connective tissue bone

13 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Dentition may include cutting, tearing, and grinding teeth Juvenile teeth may be replaced by adult teeth cutting tearing grinding Human dentition indicates we are omnivores!

14 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company snake beaver deer dog Among vertebrates the dentition has functional significance: grasping and angled back for swallowing prey whole muscular lips tear off leaves, molars grind them Huge indeterminate incisors slash into young tree trunks, molars grind plant material large canine teeth and pointed molars (more like canines), designed for tearing animal flesh…minimal grinding of tissue

15 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company The human digestive system: amylase Not shown: ventilation system connects at glottis in throat (pharynx) peristalsis

16 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company The movement of food in the digestive tube is by peristalsis

17 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company The human digestive system: amylase pepsin, HCl bile (emulsifier) trypsin, amylase, H 2 CO 3 (alk), lipase subunit absorption bacterial culture unknown water reabsorption waste holding, elimination acidic portion alkaline portion

18 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company An intestinal cross section reveals the increased surface area: circular muscles for peristalsis

19 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company To increase the surface area of the absorptive regions of the intestine, the lining is corrugated and lined with villi villi

20 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company The villi of the intestine have good blood supply for nutrient uptake Notice how the villus is coated with microvilli…for more area! sugars, amino acids, nucleotides

21 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Here you can see the microvilli from a single villus villus microvilli

22 Digestion of polysaccharides amylase Starch maltase Maltose Glucose These monosaccharides are ready for absorption from the digestive system. glu  -1,4 glycosidic bond

23 terminal AA removers dipeptide splitter Individual Amino Acids For Absorption in Small Intestine Protein digestion in mammals: HisGluTyrThrLysHisGluSerArgAspTrpThrPhe amino end carboxyl end Stomach Pancreas pepsin HisGluTyrThrLysHisGluSerArgAspTrpThrPhe HisGluTyrThrLysHisGluSerArgAspTrpThrPhe HisGluTyrThrLysHisGluSerArgAspTrpThrPhe HisGluTyrThrLysHisGluSerArgAspTrpThrPhe trypsin chymotrypsin carboxypeptidaseaminopeptidase dipeptidase Proteins are polymers of some 22 different amino acids Enzymes cleave the peptide bond during… recognize phenolic AA, cleave amino side recognize phenolic AA, cleave carboxyl side recognize basic AA, cleave carboxyl side cleave AA from amino endcleave AA from carboxyl end recognize dipeptide, cleave peptide bond

24 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Chymotrypsinogen conversion into chymotrypsin Chymotrypsinogen from pancreas is inactive Activation by acidic pepsin cleavage Finished chymotrypsin with active site recognizing Tyr, Trp and Phe How do you make digestive enzymes without digesting yourself?

25 Summary of macromolecule digestion into subunits Disaccharides maltose sucrose lactose Monosaccharides gluose frucose galactose Polysaccharides starch (amylose) salivary amylase pancreatic amylase intestinal maltase sucrase lactase Proteins Peptides Amino Acids Endopeptidases: stomach pepsin pancreatic trypsin pancreatic chymotrypsin Exopeptidases: pancreatic intestinal Fats (triglycerides) Emulsified fats liver bile monoglycerides fatty acids glycerol direct absorption pancreatic lipase


Download ppt "Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google