Presentation on theme: "Review What types of food do herbivores eat, What are nutritional symbionts Relate Cause and Effect How might a corral be affected if all its symbiotic."— Presentation transcript:
1 Review What types of food do herbivores eat, What are nutritional symbionts Relate Cause and Effect How might a corral be affected if all its symbiotic algae diedReview what are two types of digestion animals use to break down and absorb foodCompare and Contrast What is a major structural difference between gastrovascular cavities and digestive tracts
2 Ch 27 Animal Systems I27.1 Feeding and Digestion
3 What and how you eat depends on how you look and act.
4 Filter FeedersCatch algae and small animals by using modified gills or other structures as nets that filter food items out of waterBarnacles to blue whales.
5 DetritivoresFeed on detritus, often obtaining extra nutrients from the bacteria, algae, and other microorganisms that grow on and around itEarthworms to cleaner shrimp.
6 Carnivores Eat other animals Wolves or orcas Carnivorous invertebrates Use teeth, claws, and speed or stealthy hunting tactics to bring down preyCarnivorous invertebratesCnidarians paralyze prey with poison-tipped dartsSpiders immobilize their victims with venomous fangs.
7 Herbivores Eat plants or parts of plants Locusts to cattle May specialize in eating seeds or fruits.
9 Parasitic Symbionts Parasites live within or on a host organism Feed on tissues or on blood and other body fluidsCan cause serious diseases.
10 Mutualistic Symbionts Reef-building corals depend on symbiotic algae that live within their tissues for most of their energyAlgae gain nutrition from the corals’ wastes and protection from algae eaters.
11 Intracellular Digestion Digest food inside specialized cells that pass nutrients to other cells by diffusion.
12 Extracellular Digestion Process in which food is broken down outside cells in a digestive system and is then absorbedMost common in more complex animals.
13 Gastrovascular Cavities Interior body space whose tissues carry out digestive and circulatory functionsSingle opening through which they both ingest food and expel wastes.
14 Cells lining the gastrovascular cavity secrete enzymes and absorb digested food Other cells surround food particles and digest them in vacuolesNutrients then transported throughout body.
15 Digestive Tracts Digest food in a tube which has two openings Food moves in one directionEntering the body through the mouthWastes leave through the anusMany invertebrates and all vertebrates.
16 Digestive TractsSpecialized structures perform different tasks as food passes through themMouth secretes digestive enzymes that start the chemical digestion of foodSpecialized mouthparts or a muscular organ called a gizzard breaks food into small pieces.
17 Digestive TractsChemical digestion begins or continues in a stomach that secretes digestive enzymesChemical breakdown continues in the intestines, sometimes aided by secretions from other organsIntestines also absorb the nutrients released by digestion.
18 Solid Waste Disposal Some indigestible material will always be left Solid wastes, or feces, are expelled through the single digestive opening, or anus.
19 Eating MeatHave sharp teeth that grab, tear, and slice food like knives and scissors wouldJaw bones and muscles are adapted for up-and- down movements that chop meat into small pieces.
20 Eating Plant LeavesNeed to tear plant cell walls and expose their contentsMouthparts that grind and pulverize leaf tissues.
21 Carnivors typically have short digestive tracts that produce fast-acting, meat-digesting enzymes.
22 No animal produces digestive enzymes that can break down the cellulose in plant tissue Cattle have a pouchlike extension of their stomach called a rumen, in which symbiotic bacteria digest cellulose.
23 Pieces of boiled egg white are placed in a test tube with hydrochloric acid, water, and pepsin (enzyme that digests protein)1. Describe the trend in the amount of proteindigested over time2. About how many hours did it take for halfthe protein to bedigested3. How would youexpect the rate of meatdigestion to differ in ananimal that had lesspepsin