Presentation on theme: "The interaction of an organism and its environment"— Presentation transcript:
1 The interaction of an organism and its environment EcologyThe interaction of an organism and its environment
2 Biology is multidimensional CellTissueOrganOrgan SystemOrganismPopulationCommunityEcosystemThis array is an example of what dimension?Levels of OrganizationWhat fields of biology are at each extreme?Biochemistry and BiophysicsIn this course our focus will be upon…The Plant!
3 What is the white mass at the top? EcosphereWhat is the white mass at the top?What is the big green-brown body in the upper half?What season is it in Connecticut?What are the white swirls?Where is the equator?
4 Biome: deciduous forest biome What is one source for the water?
5 Ecosystems: forest, riverine, old field, disturbed
6 Forest ecosystem: a community of trees What are the different colors and shapes?What are we not seeing without a closer look?
7 Forest Community: What do producer, consumer, decomposer mean?
8 Population of trees--OK only if ONE species? Is that valid?
9 Organism: one treeWhy is this one tree so different from those individuals in the previous picture?
10 Organ System: branch with stem, buds, petioles, leaves
12 Tissues: epidermis, palisade and spongy mesophyll, xylem, phloem window, lenspalisade mesophyllphotosynthesisxylemwater and mineral intakephloemsugar and amino acid exportspongy mesophyllevaporative cooling (photosynthesis)epidermisregulates water loss and gas exchange
13 Cell: a mesophyll protoplast (Cell wall was digested off by cellulase) cell membraneimport/exportchloroplastphotosynthesisnucleustranscriptionreplicationvacuoletoxic waste processingcytosolfermentation glycolysis
15 Macromolecular: DNA ribose sugar phosphate nitrogenous bases (green white)phosphate(yellow red)nitrogenous bases(blue green white red)
16 Environmental Requirements For Plants Water (H2O)Carbon Dioxide (CO2)Sunlight and HeatMinerals (most from soil)Macroelements (above plus:)N=nitrogen P=phosphorus K=potassiumCa=calcium Mg=magnesiumFe=iron S=sulfurMicroelements (enzyme cofactors)Co Mn Cu Zn Si Mo B Al Cl
17 Forest Community Trophic Levels: What do producer, consumer, decomposer mean?
18 Food Web and Trophic Pyramid energy processed2° Carnivores 10 kcal m-2 yr-11° Carnivores 400Herbivores 4,000Producers 21,000Energy lost at each transition and with “life cost” at each level
19 Food Web and Trophic Pyramid biomass1° Carnivores 0.1 g DW m-2Herbivores 0.6Producers 470.0plants outweigh all consumers combined!
20 Food Web and Trophic Pyramid biomassWhich trophic level has the higher rates of growth and/or reproduction?Zooplankton 21g DW m-2Phytoplankton 4What happens if I use “weed and feed” on my lawn?
21 Food Web and Trophic Pyramid population size2° Carnivores1° CarnivoresHerbivoresProducersThis might be expected for a grasslands ecosystem
22 Food Web and Trophic Pyramid population size2° Carnivores1° CarnivoresHerbivoresProducerThis might be expected for a tropical single-tree ecosystemWhat is the compensating factor making this stable?If the tree is unique in a very diverse tropical rainforest, if the associated species have obligate relationships, what happens if we “harvest” this one tree?
23 Competition: Spirodela is excluded by Lemna when grown together Did/Will you observe competitive exclusion in the arboretum?SpirodelaAllelopathy: chemical inhibition of other organisms nearby.Lemna
29 Succession: PrimaryPioneer Species colonizing rock, creating soil
30 Succession: Secondary Successional Seres: Old Field going back to ForestIs a Climax Community a valid concept? (Chestnut, Dogwood)
31 Terrestrial Landmarks and Photoperiod Swings The sun passes directly overhead for more days per year than anywhere elseMinimal photoperiod swingsThe sun passes directly overhead only one day per yearPhotoperiod swingsTropical ClimateThe sun fails to rise at least one day per yearExtreme photoperiod swings
33 Effect of Latitude, Longitude (proximity to water) How harsh is the winter in Willimantic, Connecticut?
34 Effect of LatitudeThe thin white line around the earth is its atmosphere!Air pockets called “cells” have the circulation indicated by arrows.Arrows coming down indicate high pressure, less precipitation.Arrows pointing outward indicate low pressure, and high precipitation.Pattern repeated in Southern Hemisphere (not shown)HL30°NHwesterlieshorse latitudesNE trade winds0°equatorial doldrumsLSE trade windshorse latitudeswesterlies30°S
37 Biome Temperature Precipitation Key Plants Other Features Rainforest HighBroadleaf evergreen trees, epiphytes, lianas (vines)The soils are infertile and the species diversity is very highSavannas and Deciduous Tropical ForestSeasonal DroughtGrasslands with scattered broadleaf deciduous shrubs and treesPeriodic fire is common, C4 photosynthesisDesertLow but a "wet" seasonSucculents and some annual herbsSmall/no leaves, thick waxy cuticles, hairy epidermi, CAM photosynthesisGrasslandsTemperateModerate LowPerennial bunch and sod grassesLand exploited for cropsTemperate deciduous forestModerate EvenDeciduous trees and perennial herbsObvious herbaceous plants vary with seasonTemperate mixed and conifer forestsModerateMixtures of broadleaf and conifersTransition between temperate and taiga, soils are infertileMediterranean scrubmoist winter dry summerEvergreen and summer deciduous trees and shrubs, thicket/coppiceAlso known as chaparral (NW) and maquis (OW)TaigaSevere temperateConiferous forestSoils are acid and infertile, possible permafrostTundraExtreme temperateLowVery low shrubs, grasses, lichens, herbsPermafrost present in soil, much plant biomass is below ground