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The interaction of an organism and its environment

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Presentation on theme: "The interaction of an organism and its environment"— Presentation transcript:

1 The interaction of an organism and its environment
Ecology The interaction of an organism and its environment

2 Biology is multidimensional
Cell Tissue Organ Organ System Organism Population Community Ecosystem This array is an example of what dimension? Levels of Organization What fields of biology are at each extreme? Biochemistry and Biophysics In this course our focus will be upon… The Plant!

3 What is the white mass at the top?
Ecosphere What is the white mass at the top? What is the big green-brown body in the upper half? What season is it in Connecticut? What are the white swirls? Where is the equator?

4 Biome: deciduous forest biome What is one source for the water?

5 Ecosystems: forest, riverine, old field, disturbed

6 Forest ecosystem: a community of trees
What are the different colors and shapes? What are we not seeing without a closer look?

7 Forest Community: What do producer, consumer, decomposer mean?

8 Population of trees--OK only if ONE species? Is that valid?

9 Organism: one tree Why is this one tree so different from those individuals in the previous picture?

10 Organ System: branch with stem, buds, petioles, leaves

11 Organ: one leaf blade petiole

12 Tissues: epidermis, palisade and spongy mesophyll, xylem, phloem
window, lens palisade mesophyll photosynthesis xylem water and mineral intake phloem sugar and amino acid export spongy mesophyll evaporative cooling (photosynthesis) epidermis regulates water loss and gas exchange

13 Cell: a mesophyll protoplast (Cell wall was digested off by cellulase)
cell membrane import/export chloroplast photosynthesis nucleus transcription replication vacuole toxic waste processing cytosol fermentation glycolysis

14 Organelles: endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, mitochondrion, oleosome
internal transport nucleus transcription, replication DNA zymogen granule enzyme protein storage and secretion compartment mitochondrion respiration

15 Macromolecular: DNA ribose sugar phosphate nitrogenous bases
(green white) phosphate (yellow red) nitrogenous bases (blue green white red)

16 Environmental Requirements For Plants
Water (H2O) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Sunlight and Heat Minerals (most from soil) Macroelements (above plus:) N=nitrogen P=phosphorus K=potassium Ca=calcium Mg=magnesium Fe=iron S=sulfur Microelements (enzyme cofactors) Co Mn Cu Zn Si Mo B Al Cl

17 Forest Community Trophic Levels:
What do producer, consumer, decomposer mean?

18 Food Web and Trophic Pyramid
energy processed 2° Carnivores 10 kcal m-2 yr-1 1° Carnivores 400 Herbivores 4,000 Producers 21,000 Energy lost at each transition and with “life cost” at each level

19 Food Web and Trophic Pyramid
biomass 1° Carnivores 0.1 g DW m-2 Herbivores 0.6 Producers 470.0 plants outweigh all consumers combined!

20 Food Web and Trophic Pyramid
biomass Which trophic level has the higher rates of growth and/or reproduction? Zooplankton 21g DW m-2 Phytoplankton 4 What happens if I use “weed and feed” on my lawn?

21 Food Web and Trophic Pyramid
population size 2° Carnivores 1° Carnivores Herbivores Producers This might be expected for a grasslands ecosystem

22 Food Web and Trophic Pyramid
population size 2° Carnivores 1° Carnivores Herbivores Producer This might be expected for a tropical single-tree ecosystem What is the compensating factor making this stable? If the tree is unique in a very diverse tropical rainforest, if the associated species have obligate relationships, what happens if we “harvest” this one tree?

23 Competition: Spirodela is excluded by Lemna when grown together
Did/Will you observe competitive exclusion in the arboretum? Spirodela Allelopathy: chemical inhibition of other organisms nearby. Lemna

24 Pollinator - Flowering plant Ant - Acacia Trees - Mycorrhizal fungi
Symbiosis: Mutualism Legume - Rhizobium Pollinator - Flowering plant Ant - Acacia Trees - Mycorrhizal fungi Lichen

25 Symbiosis: Commensalism
Tree - Vitis labrusca

26 Symbiosis: Parasitism
Vitis labrusca - Phylloxera infestans

27 Ungulate or Rodent - Plant
Symbiosis: Herbivory Ungulate or Rodent - Plant Opuntia - Cactoblastis cactorum - Cyclura rileyi

28 Carnivorous plant - Animal
Symbiosis: Carnivory Carnivorous plant - Animal

29 Succession: Primary Pioneer Species colonizing rock, creating soil

30 Succession: Secondary
Successional Seres: Old Field going back to Forest Is a Climax Community a valid concept? (Chestnut, Dogwood)

31 Terrestrial Landmarks and Photoperiod Swings
The sun passes directly overhead for more days per year than anywhere else Minimal photoperiod swings The sun passes directly overhead only one day per year Photoperiod swings Tropical Climate The sun fails to rise at least one day per year Extreme photoperiod swings

32 Effect of Latitude and Solar Incidence

33 Effect of Latitude, Longitude (proximity to water)
How harsh is the winter in Willimantic, Connecticut?

34 Effect of Latitude The thin white line around the earth is its atmosphere! Air pockets called “cells” have the circulation indicated by arrows. Arrows coming down indicate high pressure, less precipitation. Arrows pointing outward indicate low pressure, and high precipitation. Pattern repeated in Southern Hemisphere (not shown) H L 30°N H westerlies horse latitudes NE trade winds equatorial doldrums L SE trade winds horse latitudes westerlies 30°S

35 Effect of Elevation

36 Biomes on Earth

37 Biome Temperature Precipitation Key Plants Other Features Rainforest
High Broadleaf evergreen trees, epiphytes, lianas (vines) The soils are infertile and the species diversity is very high Savannas and Deciduous Tropical Forest Seasonal Drought Grasslands with scattered broadleaf deciduous shrubs and trees Periodic fire is common, C4 photosynthesis Desert Low but a "wet" season Succulents and some annual herbs Small/no leaves, thick waxy cuticles, hairy epidermi, CAM photosynthesis Grasslands Temperate Moderate Low Perennial bunch and sod grasses Land exploited for crops Temperate deciduous forest Moderate Even Deciduous trees and perennial herbs Obvious herbaceous plants vary with season Temperate mixed and conifer forests Moderate Mixtures of broadleaf and conifers Transition between temperate and taiga, soils are infertile Mediterranean scrub moist winter dry summer Evergreen and summer deciduous trees and shrubs, thicket/coppice Also known as chaparral (NW) and maquis (OW) Taiga Severe temperate Coniferous forest Soils are acid and infertile, possible permafrost Tundra Extreme temperate Low Very low shrubs, grasses, lichens, herbs Permafrost present in soil, much plant biomass is below ground

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