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Ecology The interaction of an organism and its environment.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecology The interaction of an organism and its environment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecology The interaction of an organism and its environment

2 Biology is multidimensional Cell Tissue Organ Organ System Organism Population Community Ecosystem This array is an example of what dimension? Levels of Organization What fields of biology are at each extreme? Biochemistry and Biophysics In this course our focus will be upon… The Plant!

3 Ecosphere What is the white mass at the top? What is the big green-brown body in the upper half? What season is it in Connecticut? What are the white swirls? Where is the equator?

4 Biome: deciduous forest biome What is one source for the water?

5 Ecosystems: forest, riverine, old field, disturbed %20Saint%20John%20River%20Hardwood%20Forest%20-%20Aerial%20- %20Communications%20NB%2072%20DPI%20RGB%20JPG.jpg

6 Forest ecosystem: a community of trees What are the different colors and shapes? What are we not seeing without a closer look?

7 Forest Community: What do producer, consumer, decomposer mean?

8 Population of trees--OK only if ONE species? Is that valid?

9 Organism: one tree Why is this one tree so different from those individuals in the previous picture?

10 Organ System: branch with stem, buds, petioles, leaves

11 Organ: one leaf blade petiole

12 Tissues: epidermis, palisade and spongy mesophyll, xylem, phloem epidermis window, lens palisade mesophyll photosynthesis xylem water and mineral intake phloem sugar and amino acid export spongy mesophyll evaporative cooling (photosynthesis) epidermis regulates water loss and gas exchange

13 Cell: a mesophyll protoplast (Cell wall was digested off by cellulase) cell membrane import/export chloroplast photosynthesis cytosol fermentation glycolysis vacuole toxic waste processing nucleus transcription replication

14 Organelles: endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, mitochondrion, oleosome endoplasmic reticulum internal transport nucleus transcription, replication mitochondrion respiration zymogen granule enzyme protein storage and secretion compartment DNA

15 Macromolecular: DNA ribose sugar (green white) phosphate (yellow red) nitrogenous bases (blue green white red)

16 Environmental Requirements For Plants Water (H 2 O) Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) Sunlight and Heat Minerals (most from soil) Macroelements (above plus:) N=nitrogen P=phosphorus K=potassium Ca=calcium Mg=magnesium Fe=iron S=sulfur Microelements (enzyme cofactors) Co Mn Cu Zn Si Mo B Al Cl

17 Forest Community Trophic Levels: What do producer, consumer, decomposer mean?

18 Food Web and Trophic Pyramid 2° Carnivores 10 kcal m -2 yr -1 1° Carnivores 400 Herbivores Herbivores 4,000 Producers 21,000 energy processed Energy lost at each transition and with life cost at each level

19 Food Web and Trophic Pyramid 1° Carnivores 0.1 g DW m -2 Herbivores Herbivores 0.6 Producers biomass plants outweigh all consumers combined!

20 Food Web and Trophic Pyramid Zooplankton Zooplankton 21g DW m -2 Phytoplankton 4 biomass Which trophic level has the higher rates of growth and/or reproduction? What happens if I use weed and feed on my lawn?

21 Food Web and Trophic Pyramid 2° Carnivores 1° CarnivoresHerbivores Producers population size This might be expected for a grasslands ecosystem

22 Food Web and Trophic Pyramid 2° Carnivores 1° CarnivoresHerbivores Producer population size This might be expected for a tropical single- tree ecosystem What is the compensating factor making this stable? If the tree is unique in a very diverse tropical rainforest, if the associated species have obligate relationships, what happens if we harvest this one tree?

23 Spirodela Lemna Competition: Spirodela is excluded by Lemna when grown together Did/Will you observe competitive exclusion in the arboretum? Allelopathy: chemical inhibition of other organisms nearby.

24 Symbiosis: Mutualism Legume - Rhizobium Pollinator - Flowering plant Ant - Acacia Trees - Mycorrhizal fungi Lichen

25 Symbiosis: Commensalism Tree - Vitis labrusca

26 Symbiosis: Parasitism Vitis labrusca - Phylloxera infestans

27 Symbiosis: Herbivory Ungulate or Rodent - Plant Opuntia - Cactoblastis cactorum - Cyclura rileyi ages/cactoblastis.jpg

28 Symbiosis: Carnivory Carnivorous plant - Animal

29 Succession: Primary Pioneer Species colonizing rock, creating soil

30 Succession: Secondary Successional Seres: Old Field going back to Forest Is a Climax Community a valid concept? (Chestnut, Dogwood)

31 Tropical Climate The sun passes directly overhead for more days per year than anywhere else Minimal photoperiod swings The sun passes directly overhead only one day per year Photoperiod swings The sun fails to rise at least one day per year Extreme photoperiod swings Terrestrial Landmarks and Photoperiod Swings

32 Effect of Latitude and Solar Incidence

33 Effect of Latitude, Longitude (proximity to water) How harsh is the winter in Willimantic, Connecticut?

34 Effect of Latitude The thin white line around the earth is its atmosphere! Air pockets called cells have the circulation indicated by arrows. ArrowsArrows coming down indicate high pressure, less precipitation. ArrowsArrows pointing outward indicate low pressure, and high precipitation. Pattern repeated in Southern Hemisphere (not shown) L westerlies horse latitudes SE trade winds NE trade winds equatorial doldrums westerlies horse latitudes 30°N 30°S 0° H L H

35 Effect of Elevation

36 Biomes on Earth

37 Biome TemperaturePrecipitationKey PlantsOther Features Rainforest High Broadleaf evergreen trees, epiphytes, lianas (vines) The soils are infertile and the species diversity is very high Savannas and Deciduous Tropical Forest High Seasonal Drought Grasslands with scattered broadleaf deciduous shrubs and trees Periodic fire is common, C4 photosynthesis Desert High Low but a "wet" season Succulents and some annual herbs Small/no leaves, thick waxy cuticles, hairy epidermi, CAM photosynthesis Grasslands TemperateModerate Low Perennial bunch and sod grasses Land exploited for crops Temperate deciduous forest TemperateModerate Even Deciduous trees and perennial herbs Obvious herbaceous plants vary with season Temperate mixed and conifer forests Moderate Mixtures of broadleaf and conifers Transition between temperate and taiga, soils are infertile Mediterranean scrub Temperate moist winter dry summer Evergreen and summer deciduous trees and shrubs, thicket/coppice Also known as chaparral (NW) and maquis (OW) Taiga Severe temperateModerate LowConiferous forest Soils are acid and infertile, possible permafrost Tundra Extreme temperateLow Very low shrubs, grasses, lichens, herbs Permafrost present in soil, much plant biomass is below ground

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