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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu UNIT ONE: General Ecology and Population Part 1: Content Food Chains,

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu UNIT ONE: General Ecology and Population Part 1: Content Food Chains,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu UNIT ONE: General Ecology and Population Part 1: Content Food Chains, Food Webs Energy Flow and Trophic Levels. Time: 5 days

2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu UNIT ONE: Practical Requirements Part 1: Application 1. Construct a Food Chain 2. Construct a Food web 3. Construct and calculate Energy flow through the energy pyramid. Time: 5 days

3 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu What Is Environmental Science? Environmental Science is the study of the air, water, and land surrounding an organism or a community, which ranges from a small area to Earths entire biosphere. Ecology is the study of interactions of living organisms with one another and with their environment. Ecosystem - A community of living and non-living things that work together. (i.e. desert, lake, tree, puddle, etc.) No size requirement.

4 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Biological Organization From largest to smallest, the biological organization for ecology is: Biosphere-Global Sum of All Ecosystems Biomes- next slide Ecosystem-next slide Community Population Organism

5 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Ecosystem - A community of living and non-living things that work together. (i.e. desert, lake, tree, puddle, etc.) No size requirement. Biome- The very largest ecosystems. They are: –Tropical Rain Forest –Grasslands –Desert –Deciduous –Tundra –Coniferous Forest (Taiga)-Largest –Chaparral –Savanna –Alpine

6 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Biomes

7 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Biotic – The living things that shape an ecosystem. Abiotic-non-living chemical and physical factors in the. (i.e. light, soil, water, radiation, temperature) Habitat – The environment that an organism lives in. (i.e. forrest)

8 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Life Depends on the Sun Energy from the sun enters an ecosystem when plants use sunlight to make sugar molecules. This happens through a process called photosynthesis.

9 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Life Depends on the Sun Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen.

10 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu From Producers to Consumers Because plants make their own food, they are called producers. A producer is an organism that can make organic molecules from inorganic molecules. Producers are also called autotrophs, or self-feeders.

11 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu From Producers to Consumers Organisms that get their energy by eating other organisms are called consumers. A consumer is an organism that eats other organisms or organic matter instead of producing its own nutrients or obtaining nutrients from inorganic sources. Consumers are also called heterotrophs, or other- feeders.

12 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu From Producers to Consumers Some producers get their energy directly from the sun by absorbing it through their leaves. Consumers get their energy indirectly by eating producers or other consumers.

13 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu An Exception to the Rule Deep-ocean communities of worms, clams, crabs, mussels, and barnacles, exist in total darkness on the ocean floor, where photosynthesis cannot occur. The producers in this environment are bacteria that use hydrogen sulfide present in the water. Other underwater organisms eat the bacteria or the organisms that eat the bacteria.

14 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu What Eats What? Organisms can be classified by what they eat. Types of Consumers: Herbivores – Plant Eater Carnivores – Meat Eater Omnivores – Eats Plants or Animals Detritivores – Decomposers/ Scavangers that Breaks down dead plants and animals (detritus) and their waste.

15 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Burning the Fuel An organism obtains energy from the food it eats. This food must be broken down within its body. The process of breaking down food to yield energy is called cellular respiration.

16 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Burning the Fuel Cellular Respiration is the process by which cells produce energy from carbohydrates; atmospheric oxygen combines with glucose to form water and carbon dioxide. Cellular respiration occurs inside the cells of most organisms.

17 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Burning the Fuel During cellular respiration, cells absorb oxygen and use it to release energy from food. Through cellular respiration, cells use glucose (sugar) and oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy.

18 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Burning the Fuel Part of the energy obtained through cellular respiration is used to carry out daily activities. Excess energy is stored as fat or sugar.

19 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Energy Transfer Each time an organism eats another organism, an energy transfer occurs. This transfer of energy can be traced by studying food chains, food webs, and trophic levels.

20 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Food Chains A food chain is a sequence in which energy is transferred from one organism to the next as each organism eats another organism.

21 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Food Chains

22 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Food Webs Ecosystems, however, almost always contain more than one food chain. A food web shows many feeding relationships that are possible in an ecosystem.

23 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Food Webs

24 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Trophic Levels Each step in the transfer of energy through a food chain or food web is known as a trophic level. A trophic level is one of the steps in a food chain or food pyramid; examples include producers and primary, secondary, and tertiary consumers.

25 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Trophic Levels Each time energy is transferred, some of the energy is lost as heat. Therefore, less energy is available to organisms at higher trophic levels. (10% passes to the next level and 90% is lost as heat). One way to visualize this is with an energy pyramid.

26 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Trophic Levels Each layer of the pyramid represents one trophic level. Producers form the base of the energy pyramid, and therefore contain the most energy. The pyramid becomes smaller toward the top, where less energy is available.

27 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Energy Pyramid

28 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Biomass-The total amount of living or organic matter in an ecosystem. Maximum biomass occurs in producers, and there is progressive decrease in biomass from lower to higher trophic levels. (90/10 rule) Biomass Pyramid:

29 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Pyramid of Numbers- Illustrates the total number of organisms at each trophic level. Highest numbers are at the lower levels.

30 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Productivity of Ecosystems Productivity- The rate of production of biomass. Productivity of autotrophs such as plants is called primary productivity, while that of heterotrophs such as animals is called secondary productivity. Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)- Total amount of energy captured from photosynthesis over a period of time.

31 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Net Primary Productivity (NPP)- The amount of biomass energy after cell respiration has occurred in plant tissue. GPP-Plant respiration=NPP Most Productive Terrestrial Biomes are tropical rain forest, temperate forest, taiga (boreal forest), tundra based on biodiversity and humidity.


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