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Ecology. Define Ecology study of the interactions that take place among organisms and their environment.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecology. Define Ecology study of the interactions that take place among organisms and their environment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecology

2 Define Ecology

3 study of the interactions that take place among organisms and their environment

4 Describe each of the following terms: Biosphere Biotic Abiotic

5 Describe each of the following terms: Biosphere - part of Earth that supports life, including the top portion of Earth's crust, the atmosphere, and all the water on Earth's surface Biotic - living Abiotic – non-living

6 Describe each of the following terms: Biome

7 Describe each of the following terms: Biome - large geographic areas with similar climates and ecosystems Includes: –TUNDRA –TAIGA –DESERT –TROPICAL RAINFOREST –TEMPERATE RAINFOREST –DECIDUOUS FOREST –DESERT –GRASSLAND

8 Describe each of the following terms: Organism Population Community

9 Describe each of the following terms: Organism – one of any living thing Population - all the organisms that belong to the same species living in a community Community - all the populations of different species that live in an ecosystem

10 Describe each of the following terms: Ecosystem Habitat Niche

11 Describe each of the following terms: Ecosystem - all the living organisms that live in an area and the nonliving features of their environment Habitat - place where an organism lives and that provides the types of food, shelter, moisture, and temperature needed for survival Niche - in an ecosystem, refers to the unique ways an organism survives, obtains food and shelter, and avoids danger

12 Describe each of the following terms: Limiting factor Carrying capacity

13 Describe each of the following terms: Limiting factor - anything that can restrict the size of a population, including living and nonliving features of an ecosystem, such as predators or drought Carrying capacity - largest number of individuals of a particular species that an ecosystem can support over time

14 Describe each of the following terms: Producer Consumer Decomposer

15 Describe each of the following terms: Producer - organism, such as a green plant or alga, that uses an outside source of energy like the Sun to create energy- rich food molecules Consumer - organism that cannot create energy-rich molecules but obtains its food by eating other organisms Decomposer – consume wastes and dead organisms

16 Describe each of the following terms: Predator Prey

17 Describe each of the following terms: Predator – an animal that hunts and kills other animals for food. A predator is a consumer [carnivore or omnivore] Prey – an animal that is hunted and caught for food. Prey is a consumer; it may be a herbivore, omnivore, or carnivore.

18 Describe each of the following terms: Carnivore Herbivore Omnivore

19 Describe each of the following terms: Carnivore – eat omnivores or other carnivores [other consumers] Herbivore – eat producers Omnivore – eat producers and consumers

20 Describe each of the following terms: Adaptations of consumers: –Carnivore - meat-eating animal with sharp canine teeth specialized to rip and tear flesh –Herbivore - plant-eating mammal with incisors specialized to cut vegetation and large, flat molars to grind it –Omnivore - plant- and meat-eating animal with incisors specialized to cut vegetables, premolars to chew meat, and molars to grind food

21 Review food chains, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, decomposers ain.html

22 Describe each of the following terms: Energy flow through an ecosystem

23 Describe each of the following terms: Energy flow through an ecosystem - the movement of energy through an ecosystem through food webs. The transfer of energy from one organism to another.

24 Review the flow of energy through plants and animals here: 2.html

25 Describe each of the following terms: Food chain Food web

26 Describe each of the following terms: Food chain - chain of organisms along which energy, in the form of food passes. An organism feeds on the link before it and is in turn prey for the link after it. Food web - Complex network of many interconnected food chains and feeding relationships; a group of interconnecting food chains

27 Review food chains here: ains.htm

28 Describe each of the following terms: Energy pyramid

29 Describe each of the following terms: Energy pyramid – a way of showing energy flow. As the amount of available energy decreases, the pyramid gets smaller. Each layer on a pyramid is called a trophic level.

30 Describe each of the following terms:

31 Review energy pyramids here: amid.html

32 Describe each of the following terms: Mutualism Commensalism Symbiosis Parasitism

33 Describe each of the following terms: Mutualism - a type of symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit Commensalism - a type of symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is not affected Symbiosis - any close relationship between species, including mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism Parasitism -a type of symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is harmed

34 Describe each of the following terms: Succession Primary succession Secondary succession

35 Describe each of the following terms: Succession - natural, gradual changes in the types of species that live in an area; can be primary or secondary Primary succession – takes where no soil exists Secondary succession – takes place where soil is already present

36 Describe each of the following terms: Pioneer species Climax community

37 Describe each of the following terms: Pioneer species - a group of hardy organisms, such as lichens, found in the primary stage of succession and that begin an area's soil-building process Climax community - stable, end stage of ecological succession in which the plants and animals of a community use resources efficiently and balance is maintained by disturbances such as fire.

38 Review succession here: succession1.html

39 List the types of biomes:

40 Tundra Taiga Desert Tropical rain forest Temperate rain forest Grasslands Freshwater Saltwater

41 Describe each biome Taiga - world's largest biome, located south of the tundra between 50° N and 60° N latitude; has long, cold winters, precipitation between 35 cm and 100 cm each year, cone-bearing evergreen trees, and dense forests

42 Describe each biome Tundra - cold, dry, treeless biome with less than 25 cm of precipitation each year, a short growing season, permafrost, and winters that can be six to nine months long

43 Describe each biome Temperate rainforest - biome with 200 cm to 400 cm of precipitation each year, average temperatures between 9°C and 12°C, and forests dominated by trees with needlelike leaves

44 Describe each biome Tropical rain forest - most biologically diverse biome; has an average temperature of 25°C and receives between 200 cm and 600 cm of precipitation each year

45 Describe each biome Grasslands - temperate and tropical regions with 25 cm to 75 cm of precipitation each year that are dominated by climax communities of grasses; ideal for growing crops and raising cattle and sheep

46 Describe each biome Desert - driest biome on Earth with less than 25 cm of rain each year; has dunes or thin soil with little organic matter and plants and animals specially adapted to survive extreme conditions

47 Describe each biome Deciduous forest - biome usually having four distinct seasons, annual precipitation between 75 cm and 150 cm, and climax communities of deciduous trees

48 Describe each biome Freshwater - flowing water such as rivers and streams and standing water such as lakes, ponds, and wetlands

49 Describe each biome Saltwater - oceans, seas, a few inland lakes, such as the Great Salt Lake in Utah, coastal inlets and estuaries

50 Review biomes here: msese/earthsysflr/biomes.html

51 More information on biomes can be found here:


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