2 A Quick Review What happened to Western Europe in 1939 and 1940? Hitler led a Blitzkrieg against Poland (1939) and then on to Denmark, Norway. The Netherlands. Belgium and France.British and a large number of French troops were forced to flee across the English Channel.France surrendered in June 1940.
3 Hitler Plans an Invasion Between June and August 1940, Hitler worked on:Establishing Nazi power in recently conquered countries.Planning the next phase of the war.Hitler and his advisors believed that an Invasion of Britain could only be successful if they bombed and destroyed Britain’s war industries, military staging points, and communication centers.In August 1940, Hitler order the Luftwaffe, the German Air Force, to begin attacking Britain.
4 The Bombing BeginsIn the first month of the attack, Germany focused on military targets.This all changed after the British launched a retaliatory attack on Berlin.After the British attack, Hitler declared that a massive bombing campaign be carried out against British cities and military targets.Hitler hoped that by heavily damaging British cities, the British would lose confidence and surrender.
6 The Brits Fight BackAs soon as the Nazis began to attack, the British used a new technology called radar to track the incoming German planes.Radar gave them an advance warning of attack, so the British were able to get the RAF into the sky and fight back.In addition to the new technology, British citizens followed blackout rules, where windows would be covered and outside lights extinguished when a raid warning occurred.
7 The Nazis are RepelledAt the end of September, 1940, the tables turned on the Germans.Hitler, seeing that it would be hard to win, put the invasion of Britain on hold for the time being.
10 Hitler Turns His Attention East Hitler believed that Britain held on so long because they expected help from the U.S.S.R.By quickly attacking and destroying the U.S.S.R., Hitler hoped to crush the British resistance.Hitler invaded the U.S.S.R. in June of 1941.
11 The Germans Roll Over Russia Early in the attack, the Germans enjoyed much success.The Nazi Blitz captured millions of Russians and advanced far into Soviet territory.The Nazis came within 25 miles of Moscow, the Soviet capital.
12 The Nazi’s Find Trouble The Nazis faced several problems in late 1941.An early and rough winter, which the Nazis were unprepared for, struck.The Soviet resistance strengthened as they saw Nazi weakness.By December of 1941, the Nazi Army had been stopped.
13 German Success and Stalingrad In Spring of 1942, the Nazis attacked Russia again, and had some success.The Nazis turned their sights to the oil fields in the Caucus Mountains.To get to these oil fields, they would have to go through Stalingrad, an industrial city on the Volga River.
14 StalingradThe battle that would prove to be the turning point of the war in the East.The battle lasted over 3 months.Eventually, German troops in Stalingrad were forced to surrender.After the surrender, the Red Army mounted a offensive that drove the Germans out of Western Russia.
16 Plans DevelopAfter the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the U.S. enters WWII.FDR and Churchill began to plan the invasion of Europe.They settle on a two-front battle plan.This plan called for the invasion of Italy and France.
17 Invasion of ItalyAllied troops began by driving the Germans out of North Africa, territory that previously was controlled by the French.From here, they launched an attack on Sicily.From Sicily the Allies set up an invasion of the Italian mainland.Upon the Allied invasion, Mussolini is stripped of power by the Italian King, only to be restored when Hitler sends reinforcements to Italy.The fighting continues in Italy for 11 months.As Italy falls, Mussolini flees.
18 Invasion in FranceFDR and Churchill planned a cross channel invasion of France.The Allies chose to attack Normandy, a lightly defended area of the French coast.In June of 1944, the Allies landed in Normandy.After the invasion, the Allies had a firm base in Europe.
19 The Soviets Push Toward Germany In 1943 , the Soviets pushed the Germans out of the U.S.S.R.The Red Army began pushing the Nazis back across Eastern Europe .In July 1944, the Soviets encountered the Nazi Death Camps.By early 1945, the Soviets pushed the Nazis back into Germany.
20 Trouble for the Allies in France In Western Europe, the Allies faced strong opposition.Despite this opposition, the Allies made steady progress.At the Battle of the Bulge, Germany’s last offensive, the Nazis broke through Allied lines.However, the Allied line was recovered within a month.
21 The End of the War in Europe In April 1945, the Allied armies linked up in N. Germany.These forces worked their way toward Berlin.Hitler spent the last days of the war in his bunker below Berlin.
22 The End of the War in Europe (continued) On April 28th 1945, Mussolini was captured and killed by resistance fighters.On April 30th, Hitler committed suicide as the Red Army approached.The Germans surrendered on May 5th, 1945.