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Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Chapter 1

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1 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Chapter 1
Psychology 7e in Modules

2 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science
The Need for Psychological Science The limits of Intuition and Common Sense The Scientific Attitude The Scientific Method Psychology 7e in Modules

3 Thinking Critically … Description The Case Study The Survey
Naturalistic Observation Psychology 7e in Modules

4 Thinking Critically … Correlation Correlation and Causation
Illusory Correlation Perceiving Order in Random Events Psychology 7e in Modules

5 Thinking Critically … Experimentation Exploring Cause and Effect
Evaluating Therapies Independent and Dependent Variables Psychology 7e in Modules

6 Thinking Critically … Statistical Reasoning FAQs About Psychology
Describing Data Making Inferences FAQs About Psychology Psychology 7e in Modules

7 Impression of Psychology
With hopes of satisfying curiosity, many people listen to talk-radio counselors and psychics to learn about others and themselves. Dr. Crane (radio-shrink) Psychic (Ball gazing) Psychology 7e in Modules

8 The Need for Psychological Science
Intuition & Common Sense Many people believe that intuition and common sense are enough to bring forth answers regarding human nature. Intuition and common sense may aid queries, but they are not free of error. Psychology 7e in Modules

9 Limits of Intuition Personal interviewers may rely too much on their “gut feelings” when meeting with job applicants. Taxi/ Getty Images Psychology 7e in Modules

10 Errors of Common Sense Try this ! Pennies in a cup
Psychology 7e in Modules

11 Hindsight Bias is the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon.
After learning the outcome of an event, many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome. We only knew the stocks would plummet after they actually did plummet. OBJECTIVE 1| Describe hindsight bias and explain how it can make research findings seem like mere common sense. “Anything seems commonplace, once explained.” Dr. Watson to Sherlock Holmes. Two phenomena – hindsight bias and judgmental overconfidence – illustrate why we cannot rely solely on intuition and common sense. Psychology 7e in Modules

12 Overconfidence Sometimes we think we know more than we actually know.
Anagram How long do you think it would take to unscramble these anagrams? WREAT WATER ETYRN ENTRY OBJECTIVE 2| Describe how overconfidence contaminates our everyday judgments. People said it would take about 10 seconds, yet on average they took about 3 minutes (Goranson, 1978). GRABE BARGE Psychology 7e in Modules

13 Psychological Science
How can we differentiate between uniformed opinions and examined conclusions? The science of psychology helps make these examined conclusions, which leads to our understanding of how people feel, think, and act as they do! Psychology 7e in Modules

Psychology 7e in Modules

15 The Scientific Attitude
The scientific attitude is composed of curiosity (passion for exploration), skepticism (doubting and questioning) and humility (ability to accept responsibility when wrong). OBJECTIVE 3| Explain how the scientific attitude encourages critical thinking. Psychology 7e in Modules

16 Critical thinking does not accept arguments and conclusions blindly.
It examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions. Courtesy of the James Randi Education Foundation The Amazing Randi Psychology 7e in Modules

17 Scientific Method Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize, summarize and simplify observations. OBJECTIVE 4| Describe how psychological theories guide scientific research. Psychology 7e in Modules

18 Psychologists Analyze Data Scientifically
Behavior must be measurable detected by direct observation or other measuring devices Methods and data must be objective no opinions or bias Scientists must be able to communicate the results of their experiment to others Meetings, journals Psychology 7e in Modules

19 Guidelines cont. Procedures must be repeatable
Other scientists can do the same procedure or experiment Must use an organized and systematic approach in gathering data Psychology 7e in Modules

20 The Testing Method Reliability: a measure of consistency; must yield similar results on different testing occasions Validity: the degree to which a test measures what it is suppose to measure Psychology 7e in Modules

21 For example, low self-esteem contributes to depression.
Theory A Theory is an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events. For example, low self-esteem contributes to depression. If we were to observe that depressed people talk about their past, present, and future in a gloomy manner, we may theorize that low-self-esteem contributes to depression. Psychology 7e in Modules

22 People with low self-esteem are apt to feel more depressed.
Hypothesis A Hypothesis is a testable prediction, often prompted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory. People with low self-esteem are apt to feel more depressed. Psychology 7e in Modules

23 Research Observations
Research would require us to administer tests of self-esteem and depression. Individuals who score low on a self-esteem test and high on a depression test would confirm our hypothesis. Psychology 7e in Modules

24 Research Process Psychology 7e in Modules

25 Is language uniquely human?
Description Case Study A technique in which one person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles. OBJECTIVE 5| Identify the advantages and disadvantages of case studies in studying behavior and mental processes. Susan Kuklin/ Photo Researchers Is language uniquely human? Psychology 7e in Modules

26 Case Study Clinical Study
A clinical study is a form of case study in which the therapist investigates the problems associated with a client. Psychology 7e in Modules

Study an individual’s background forces that influence their behavior (family background, home life, neighborhood, school, etc.) ADVANTAGE: Can exhibit individual differences and suggest hypotheses Can study phenomena you cannot manipulate Can generate hypotheses to be tested DISADVANTAGE: Information comes from family, teachers and friends of individual being studied (biased?) Info. may be misleading Can’t generalize nor replicate Observer bias could be present Cannot show causality Psychologists can guide patients into saying what they want hear Psychology 7e in Modules

28 METHODS cont. INTERVIEWS: One-on-one questioning ADVANTAGE:
Develop rapport, relaxed atmosphere, questions in advance/flexibility DISADVANTAGE: getting rid of the personal prejudices of the interviewer, difficulty in expressing the results of an interview in exact terms Psychology 7e in Modules

Gather facts about individuals or opinions Answers can be treated statistically Psychology 7e in Modules

30 METHODS cont. TESTS I.Q. Aptitude (A.S.V.A.B.)
Achievement (A.C.T., S.A.T., M.A.P.) ADVANTAGES: more objective data than interviews and questionnaires Results can be expressed in statistical terms Scores can be compared with scores for large groups DISADVANTAGES: Results do not give full and final answers to individual problems Psychology 7e in Modules

31 Survey A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a representative, random sample of people. OBJECTIVE 6| Identify the advantages and disadvantages of surveys in studying behavior and mental processes, and explain the importance of wording effects and random sampling. Psychology 7e in Modules

32 Survey Reveals attitudes and behaviors of large sample of people
Learn about behavior and mental processes that cannot be observed in the natural setting or studied experimentally Psychology 7e in Modules

33 Limitations Limited generalization
Replication sensitive to sample selected Give socially desirable answers Exaggerated answers to foul up results Different interviewers for different samples (gender, SES, ethnicity) Psychology 7e in Modules

34 Limitations (cont.) Easy to bias by Wording Effect
“Given the number of shootings in schools, should we regulate handguns? True or False Cannot establish causal relationships Psychology 7e in Modules

35 Wording can change the results of a survey.
Wording Effect Wording can change the results of a survey. Q: Should cigarette ads and pornography be allowed on television? (not allowed vs. forbid) Psychology 7e in Modules

36 False Consensus Effect
Survey False Consensus Effect A tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors. Psychology 7e in Modules

37 Samples and Populations
Example: Alf Landon defeated Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1936 poll (Roosevelt won by landslide) - surveyed voters by phone -during Great Depression Wealthy->phones>Republican Psychology 7e in Modules

38 Samples Must accurately represent the population they are intended to reflect. Only representative samples allow us to generalize from research samples to populations. Psychology 7e in Modules

39 Sample/Population Population: a complete group of organisms or events
Sample: The individuals who are studied; part of a population Population: a complete group of organisms or events Infer:Draw a conclusion Psychology 7e in Modules

40 Problems in Generalizing
Research sample (consider gender, age, ethnicity) Volunteer Bias Psychology 7e in Modules

41 Volunteer Bias A source of bias or error in research that reflects the prospect that people who offer to participate in research studies differ systematically from people who don’t. Psychology 7e in Modules

42 Volunteer Bias Volunteers have more spare time than nonvolunteers
More willing to disclose intimate information Volunteers have more spare time than nonvolunteers How do they differ from the population at large? Psychology 7e in Modules

43 Problems with Generalization
Demographic variables: -age -education -socioeconomic status -marital status -number of children -location Psychology 7e in Modules

44 Survey Random Sampling
If each member of a population has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample, it is called a random sample (unbiased). If the survey sample is biased, its results are not valid. The fastest way to know about the marble color ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller jar and count them. Psychology 7e in Modules

45 Question If scientists conducted research with a “random sample” of students from Valencia, would their sample represent the general U.S. population? Why or why not? Psychology 7e in Modules

46 Naturalistic Observation
Observing and recording the behavior of animals in the wild and recording self-seating patterns in a multiracial school lunch room constitute naturalistic observation. OBJECTIVE 7| Identify the advantages and disadvantages of naturalistic observation in studying behavior and mental processes. Courtesy of Gilda Morelli Psychology 7e in Modules

47 METHODS NATURAL OBSERVATION: Observing and recording the behavior of organisms in their natural environment. ADVANTAGE: description of the way organisms behave in their surroundings DISADVANTAGE: no information on how or why the behavior occurs Psychology 7e in Modules

Involves observing behavior under controlled conditions in an experimental or a laboratory setting ADVANTAGE: Allows for control of events and behaviors DISADVANTAGE: Taking an organism from its natural environment may change its behavior Psychology 7e in Modules

49 Descriptive Methods Summary
Case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation describe behaviors. Psychology 7e in Modules

50 Assignment Form a hypothesis about human behavior and use the method of naturalistic observation to support/refute your hypothesis. Write what you observed and concluded. Ex: If there are sales, then more women than men will shop at malls. Due MONDAY SEPTEMEBER 15 Psychology 7e in Modules

51 longitudinal studies A psychologist studies the same group of people at regular intervals over a period of years to determine whether their behavior and/or feelings have changed and if so, how. Ex: Studying you when you were 5, then 10, then 15, then 20, then 25, then 30, etc… Psychology 7e in Modules

52 cross-sectional studies.
In this study, psychologists organize individuals into groups based on age.  Then, these groups are randomly sampled, and the members of each group are surveyed, tested, or observed simultaneously. Single point in time (snapshot) Ex: IQ, memory, disease Psychology 7e in Modules

53 (positive or negative)
Correlation When one trait or behavior accompanies another, we say the two correlate. Indicates strength of relationship (0.00 to 1.00) Correlation coefficient r = + 0.37 OBJECTIVE 8| Describe positive and negative correlations and explain how correlational measures can aid the process of prediction. Correlation Coefficient is a statistical measure of the relationship between two variables. Indicates direction of relationship (positive or negative) Psychology 7e in Modules

54 Correlational Method Examines the extent to which two or more variables are related and can predict one another. Psychology 7e in Modules

55 Correlational Method Virtues:
-reveals relations of variables outside the lab -replication possible Limitations: -cannot establish causal relationships because you do not manipulate the variables Psychology 7e in Modules

56 Correlation Coefficient
A number that varies between and -1.00 Expresses the strength and direction (+/-) of the relationship between two variables The closer it is to 1.00 (regardless of +/-) the stronger the relationship Psychology 7e in Modules

57 Positive Correlation A relationship between variables in which one variable increases as the other also increases Example: Hours of study and GPA Psychology 7e in Modules

58 Positive Correlation   A positive relationship means:
As (A) increases, so does (B)   Hours of study (A) is positively correlated with GPA (B) Psychology 7e in Modules

59 Negative Correlation A relationship between two variables in which one variable increases as the other decreases. Example: Hours of TV and GPA Psychology 7e in Modules

60 Negative Correlation  A negative relationship means:
As (A) increases, (B) decreases  Number of hours of TV (A) has a negative relationship with GPA (B) Psychology 7e in Modules

61 GPA-> Hours of study
Correlation Research Correlational research may suggest but does not show cause and effect Often seems clear cut: Increase in Hours of study-> increase in GPA But could go other way: Students doing well in school are motivated to study more GPA-> Hours of study Psychology 7e in Modules

62 Psychology 7e in Modules

63 Psychology 7e in Modules

64 Psychology 7e in Modules

65 Correlation Research Or some third factor (Confounding Variable): Achievement Motivation could cause both -> Hours of study -> GPA Test: length of marriage is correlated with male baldness. Does marriage cause baldness? Psychology 7e in Modules

66 Scatterplots Perfect positive correlation (+1.00) Scatterplot is a graph comprised of points that are generated by values of two variables. The slope of the points depicts the direction, while the amount of scatter depicts the strength of the relationship. Psychology 7e in Modules

67 Scatterplots Perfect negative correlation (-1.00) No relationship (0.00) The Scatterplot on the left shows a negative correlation, while the one on the right shows no relationship between the two variables. Psychology 7e in Modules

68 Psychology 7e in Modules

69 Data showing height and temperament in people.
Psychology 7e in Modules

70 Scatterplot The Scatterplot below shows the relationship between height and temperament in people. There is a moderate positive correlation of Psychology 7e in Modules

71 Correlation and Causation
OBJECTIVE 9| Explain why correlational research fails to provide evidence of cause-effect relationships. Psychology 7e in Modules

72 Disconfirming evidence
Illusory Correlation The perception of a relationship where no relationship actually exists. Parents conceive children after adoption. Confirming evidence Disconfirming evidence Do not adopt Adopt Do not conceive Conceive OBJECTIVE 10| Describe how people form illusory correlations. Michael Newman Jr./ Photo Edit Psychology 7e in Modules

73 does NOT mean Causation!!!
IMPORTANT Correlation does NOT mean Causation!!! Psychology 7e in Modules

74 Given random data, we look for order and meaningful patterns.
Order in Random Events Given random data, we look for order and meaningful patterns. Your chances of being dealt either of these hands is precisely the same: 1 in 2,598,960. Psychology 7e in Modules

75 Order in Random Events Given large numbers of random outcomes, a few are likely to express order. Jerry Telfer/ San Francisco Chronicle OBJECTIVE 11| Explain the human tendency to perceive order in random events. Angelo and Maria Gallina won two California lottery games on the same day. Psychology 7e in Modules

76 Exploring Cause and Effect
Experimentation Exploring Cause and Effect Like other sciences, experimentation is the backbone of psychology research. Experiments isolate causes and their effects. OBJECTIVE 12| Explain how experiments help researchers isolate cause and effect. Psychology 7e in Modules

77 Experimental Method A scientific method that seeks to confirm cause and effect relationships by introducing independent variables and observing their effects on dependent variables. Psychology 7e in Modules

78 Experimental Method Treatment: in experiments, a condition received by participants so that its effects may be observed. Psychology 7e in Modules

79 Exploring Cause & Effect
Many factors influence our behavior. Experiments (1) manipulate factors that interest us, while other factors are kept under (2) control. Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and effect relationships. Psychology 7e in Modules

80 Independent Variable An Independent Variable is a factor manipulated by the experimenter. The effect of the independent variable is the focus of the study. For example, when examining the effects of breast feeding upon intelligence, breast feeding is the independent variable. OBJECTIVE 14| Explain the difference between an independent variable and a dependent variable. Psychology 7e in Modules

81 Dependent Variable A Dependent Variable is a factor that may change in response to an independent variable. In psychology, it is usually a behavior or a mental process. For example, in our study on the effect of breast feeding upon intelligence, intelligence is the dependent variable. Psychology 7e in Modules

82 Experimental Research
Manipulate the Independent Variable (IV) Holding all other variables constant Observe the impact on the Dependent Variable (DV) Psychology 7e in Modules

83 DRY MIX Dependent Manipulate Result Independent Y X
Operational Definition of DV-the parameters of how we measure things Psychology 7e in Modules

84 Experimental Research
Example: Aggression & Alcohol (IV): Alcohol -administered at different levels, doses (DV):Aggressive behavior Psychology 7e in Modules

85 Experimental Research
Experimental Participants: Partake of the treatment (example: members would ingest alcohol) Control Group: do not take the treatment (example: do not ingest alcohol) *** all other conditions are held constant (helps determine cause and effect) Psychology 7e in Modules

86 Placebo “Sugar pill” often results in the behavior that people expect.
Physicians now and then give sugar pills to demanding, but healthy people. They often report they feel better. Psychology 7e in Modules

87 Placebo Example: Tonic water & alcohol Giving participants placebo (tonic water) but they think they are drinking alcohol We can conclude that changes in behavior stem from their beliefs about alcohol, not the alcohol itself. Psychology 7e in Modules

88 Blinds and Double Blinds
Expectations: -Aggression may not have resulted from alcohol because individuals may have expectations of the effects of alcohol. -People act in stereotypical ways when they believe they have been drinking alcohol. (people may become less anxious in social situations, more aggressive, or more sexually aroused) Psychology 7e in Modules

89 Blind Well-designed experiments control for the effects of expectations by creating conditions under which participants are unaware of the treatment. Psychology 7e in Modules

90 Double-Blind Studies A study in which neither the participants nor the persons measuring results know who has received the treatment. Psychology 7e in Modules

91 Double-blind Procedure
Evaluating Therapies Double-blind Procedure In evaluating drug therapies, patients and experimenter’s assistants should remain unaware of which patients had the real treatment and which patients had the placebo treatment. OBJECTIVE 13| Explain why random assignment and double-blind procedure build confidence in research findings. Psychology 7e in Modules

92 * Different from random sampling
Evaluating Therapies Random Assignment Assigning participants to experimental (Breast-fed) and control (formula-fed) conditions by random assignment minimizes pre-existing differences between the two groups. * Different from random sampling Sometime research participants out of enthusiasm or personal beliefs can affect the out come of an experiment. To control for such affects, a double-blind procedure is used, in which the participants and the experimenter’s assistants are not aware of which participants got real treatment and who got placebo. Psychology 7e in Modules

93 A summary of steps during experimentation.
Psychology 7e in Modules

94 Below is a comparison of different research methods.
Psychology 7e in Modules

95 Statistical Reasoning
Statistical procedures analyze and interpret data allowing us to see what the unaided eye misses. OBJECTIVE 15| Explain the importance of statistical principles, and give an example of their use in daily life. Composition of ethnicity in urban locales Psychology 7e in Modules

96 Describing Data A meaningful description of data is important in research. Misrepresentation may lead to incorrect conclusions. OBJECTIVE 16| Explain how graphs can misrepresent data. Psychology 7e in Modules

97 Measures of Central Tendency
Mode: The most frequently occurring score in a distribution. Mean: The arithmetic average of scores in a distribution obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores that were added together. Median: The middle score in a rank-ordered distribution. OBJECTIVE 17| Describe three measures of central tendency and tell which is most affected by extreme scores. Psychology 7e in Modules

98 Quantify (count) the data within the bag=total M&Ms
M&Ms Activity Quantify (count) the data within the bag=total M&Ms Sort them according to color (10 orange, 3 red, 4 green, etc…) Psychology 7e in Modules

99 M&M Activity 3) Determine the groups quantity (total)
4) Find the groups mean 5) Find individual mode 6) Find group’s mode Bi-modal=> two categories with the same mode Psychology 7e in Modules

100 Measures of Central Tendency
A Skewed Distribution Psychology 7e in Modules

101 Measures of Variation Range: The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution. Standard Deviation: A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean. OBJECTIVE 18| Explain two measures of variation. Psychology 7e in Modules

102 M&M Activity Find the range of group’s bag quantity
*Highest # of m&ms-lowest # of m&ms 8) Find the range of colors in individual bag 9) Calculate Standard Deviation Psychology 7e in Modules

103 Standard Deviation Determine the mean
Subtract the mean from every number to get the list of deviations (negative numbers are ok) Square the resulting list of numbers Add up all the resulting squares to get their total sum Divide your result by one less than the number of items in the list To get the SD, take the square root of the resulting number Psychology 7e in Modules

104 Practice Standard Deviation
your list of numbers: 1, 3, 4, 6, 9, 19 1) mean: ( ) / 6 = 42 / 6 = 7 2) list of deviations: -6, -4, -3, -1, 2, 12 3) squares of deviations: 36, 16, 9, 1, 4, 144 4) sum of deviations: = 210 5) divided by one less than the number of items in the list: 210 / 5 = 42 6) square root of this number: square root (42) = about 6.48 Psychology 7e in Modules

105 Standard Deviation Psychology 7e in Modules

106 Making Inferences A statistical statement of how frequently an obtained result occurred by experimental manipulation or by chance. Psychology 7e in Modules

107 When is an Observed Difference Reliable?
Making Inferences When is an Observed Difference Reliable? Representative samples are better than biased samples. Less variable observations are more reliable than more variable ones. More cases are better than fewer cases. OBJECTIVE 19| Identify three principles for making generalizations from samples. Psychology 7e in Modules

108 When is a Difference Significant?
Making Inferences When is a Difference Significant? When sample averages are reliable and the difference between them is relatively large, we say the difference has statistical significance. For psychologists this difference is measured through alpha level set at 5 percent (.05) OBJECTIVE 20| Explain how psychologists decide whether differences are meaningful. Psychology 7e in Modules

109 Q1. Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life?
FAQ Q1. Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life? Ans: Artificial laboratory conditions are created to study behavior in simplistic terms. The goal is to find underlying principles that govern behavior. OBJECTIVE 21| Explain the value of simplified laboratory conditions in discovering general principles of behavior. Psychology 7e in Modules

110 Q2. Does behavior depend on one’s culture?
FAQ Q2. Does behavior depend on one’s culture? Ans: Even when specific attitudes and behaviors vary across cultures, as they often do, the underlying processes are much the same. OBJECTIVE 22| Discuss whether psychological research can be generalized across cultures and genders. Ami Vitale/ Getty Images Psychology 7e in Modules

111 Q3. Does behavior vary with gender?
FAQ Q3. Does behavior vary with gender? Ans: Yes. Biology determines our sex, and culture further bends the genders. However, in many ways woman and man are similarly human. Psychology 7e in Modules

112 Q4. Why do psychologists study animals?
FAQ Q4. Why do psychologists study animals? Ans: Studying animals gives us the understanding of many behaviors that may have common biology across animals and humans. OBJECTIVE 23| Explain why psychologists study animals, and discuss the ethics of experimentation with both animals and humans. D. Shapiro, © Wildlife Conservation Society Psychology 7e in Modules

113 Q5. Is it ethical to experiment on animals?
FAQ Q5. Is it ethical to experiment on animals? Ans: Yes. To gain insights to devastating and fatal diseases. All researchers who deal with animal research are required to follow ethical guidelines in caring for these animals. Psychology 7e in Modules

114 Q6. Is it ethical to experiment on people?
FAQ Q6. Is it ethical to experiment on people? Ans: Yes. Experiments that do not involve any kind of physical or psychological harm beyond normal levels encountered in daily life may be carried out. Psychology 7e in Modules

115 Q7. Is psychology free of value judgments?
FAQ Q7. Is psychology free of value judgments? Ans: No. Psychology emerges from people who subscribe to a set of values and judgments. OBJECTIVE 24| Describe how personal values can influence psychologists’ research and its application, and discuss psychology’s potential to manipulate people. © Roger Shepard Psychology 7e in Modules

116 Q8. Is psychology potentially dangerous?
FAQ Q8. Is psychology potentially dangerous? Ans: It can be, but it is not. The purpose of psychology is to help humanity with problems such as war, hunger, prejudice, crime, family dysfunction, etc. Psychology 7e in Modules

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