2Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Chapter 1 Psychology 7e in Modules
3Thinking Critically with Psychological Science The Need for Psychological ScienceThe limits of Intuition and Common SenseThe Scientific AttitudeThe Scientific Method
4Thinking Critically … Description The Case Study The Survey Naturalistic Observation
5Thinking Critically … Experimentation Exploring Cause and Effect Evaluating TherapiesIndependent and Dependent Variables
6Thinking Critically … Correlation Correlation and Causation Illusory CorrelationPerceiving Order in Random Events
7Thinking Critically … Statistical Reasoning FAQs About Psychology Describing DataMaking InferencesFAQs About Psychology
8Impression of Psychology With hopes of satisfying curiosity, many people listen to talk-radio counselors and psychics to learn about others and themselves.Dr. Crane (radio-shrink)Psychic (Ball gazing)
9The Need for Psychological Science Intuition & Common SenseMany people believe that intuition and common sense are enough to bring forth answers regarding human nature.Intuition and common sense may aid queries, but they are not free of error.Psychology 7e in Modules
10Limits of IntuitionPersonal interviewers may rely too much on their “gut feelings” when meeting with job applicants.Taxi/ Getty Images
11Errors of Common Sense Try this ! Fold a piece of paper (0.1 mm thick) 100 times. How thick will it be?800,000,000,000,000 times the distance between the sun and the earth.Psychology 7e in Modules
12Hindsight Bias is the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon. After learning the outcome of an event, many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome. We only knew the stock market would plummet after it actually did.OBJECTIVE 1| Describe hindsight bias and explain how it can make research findings seem like mere common sense.“Anything seems commonplace, once explained.” Dr. Watson to Sherlock Holmes.Two phenomena – hindsight bias and judgmental overconfidence – illustrate why we cannot rely solely on intuition and common sense.Psychology 7e in Modules
13Overconfidence Sometimes we think we know more than we actually know. AnagramHow long do you think it would take to unscramble these anagrams?WREATWATERETYRNENTRYOBJECTIVE 2| Describe how overconfidence contaminates our everyday judgments.People said it would take about 10 seconds, yet on average they took about 3 minutes (Goranson, 1978).GRABEBARGEPsychology 7e in Modules
14Confirmation BiasOnly searching for evidence that supports your theory, while failing to search for proof of any alternate theories
15The Scientific Attitude The scientific attitude is composed of curious skepticism (doubting and questioning plus a passion for exploration), and humility (ability to accept responsibility when wrong).OBJECTIVE 3| Explain how the scientific attitude encourages critical thinking.Psychology 7e in Modules
16Critical thinking does not accept arguments and conclusions blindly. It examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions.Courtesy of the James Randi Education FoundationThe Amazing Randi
17Scientific MethodPsychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize, summarize and simplify observations.OBJECTIVE 4| Describe how psychological theories guide scientific research.Psychology 7e in Modules
18For example, low self-esteem contributes to depression. TheoryA Theory is an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events.For example, low self-esteem contributes to depression.If we were to observe that depressed people talk about their past, present, and future in a gloomy manner, we may theorize that low-self-esteem contributes to depression.Psychology 7e in Modules
19People with low self-esteem are apt to feel more depressed. HypothesisA Hypothesis is a testable prediction, often prompted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory.People with low self-esteem are apt to feel more depressed.
20Operational Definition A description of the exact procedures used in the experiment, that will make the dependent variable measurableReplicationThe experiment should be relatively easy for others to duplicate, and get the same resultsUseful Theory TestIs the experiment a benefit to the science (of psychology)?
22Description The easiest type of research Description The easiest type of research. The psychologist simply records what he/she observes.Case StudyA technique in which one person is studied in depth, usually for a long time, to reveal underlying behavioral principles.Susan Kuklin/ Photo ResearchersOBJECTIVE 5| Identify the advantages and disadvantages of case studies in studying behavior and mental processes.Psychology 7e in Modules
23Case Study Clinical Study A clinical study is a form of case study in which the therapist investigates the problems associated with a client.
24SurveyA technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a representative, random sample of people.OBJECTIVE 6| Identify the advantages and disadvantages of surveys in studying behavior and mental processes, and explain the importance of wording effects and random sampling.Psychology 7e in Modules
25Wording can change the results of a survey. Wording EffectWording can change the results of a survey.Q: Should cigarette ads and pornography be allowed on television? (not allowed vs. forbid)
26False Consensus Effect A tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
27PopulationThe largest group from which the subjects for the experiment will be drawn. Random Sample refers to each member of the population having an equal chance of inclusion into the sample from which the experimental, and control groups will be assigned.The fastest way to know about the marble color ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller jar and count them.
28Naturalistic Observation Observing and recording the behavior of animals in the wild, as well as, recording self-seating patterns in a multiracial school lunch room constitute naturalistic observation.OBJECTIVE 7| Identify the advantages and disadvantages of naturalistic observation in studying behavior and mental processes.Courtesy of Gilda MorelliPsychology 7e in Modules
29Descriptive Methods Summary Case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation describe behaviors.
30(positive or negative) CorrelationWhen one trait or behavior (variable) accompanies another, we say the two correlate.Indicates strengthof relationship(0.00 to 1.00)Correlationcoefficientr =+0.37OBJECTIVE 8| Describe positive and negative correlations and explain how correlational measures can aid the process of prediction.Correlation Coefficient is a statistical measure of the relationship between two variables.Indicates directionof relationship(positive or negative)Psychology 7e in Modules
31ScatterplotsPerfect positivecorrelation (+1.00)Scatterplot is a graph comprised of points that are generated by values of two variables. The slope of the points depicts the direction, while the amount of scatter depicts the strength of the relationship. A positive correlation (forward slash) indicates a direct relationship (both variables increase together).
32ScatterplotsPerfect negativecorrelation (-1.00)No relationship (0.00)The Scatterplot on the left shows a negative correlation, which indicates an indirect relationship (one variable increases, while the other decreases). The one on the right shows no relationship.
34ScatterplotThe Scatterplot below shows the relationship between height and temperament in people. There is a moderate positive correlation of
35Correlation and Causation Correlational relationships tell you that certain variables are related, but not why. Correlation is not necessarily Causation.orOBJECTIVE 9| Explain why correlational research fails to provide evidence of cause-effect relationships.Psychology 7e in Modules
36Disconfirming evidence Illusory CorrelationThe perception of a relationship where no relationship actually exists. Parents conceive children after adoption.Confirming evidenceDisconfirming evidenceDo notadoptAdoptDo not conceiveConceiveOBJECTIVE 10| Describe how people form illusory correlations.Michael Newman Jr./ Photo EditPsychology 7e in Modules
37Order in Random EventsGiven random data, we look for order and meaningful patterns. Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky conducted an experiment on people perceiving order in random events (“celebrities always die in threes”)Your chances of being dealt either of these hands is precisely the same: 1 in 2,598,960.Psychology 7e in Modules
38Order in Random EventsGiven large numbers of random outcomes, a few are likely to express order.Jerry Telfer/ San Francisco ChronicleOBJECTIVE 11| Explain the human tendency to perceive order in random events.Angelo and Maria Gallina won two California lottery games on the same day.Psychology 7e in Modules
39Exploring Cause and Effect ExperimentationExploring Cause and EffectLike other sciences, experimentation is the backbone of psychological research. Experiments isolate causes and their effects.OBJECTIVE 12| Explain how experiments help researchers isolate cause and effect.Psychology 7e in Modules
40Double-blind Procedure Blind (Procedure) The patient does not know whether they received the real treatment or a placebo, which is a treatment that has no therapeutic effect. The placebo effect refers to the fact that up to 1/3 of patients receiving a placebo report feeling better.Double-blind ProcedureIn evaluating drug therapies, patients and experimenter’s assistants should remain unaware of which patients had the real treatment and which patients had the placebo treatment.OBJECTIVE 13| Explain why random assignment and double-blind procedure build confidence in research findings.Psychology 7e in Modules
41Conditions Experimental Condition Control Condition Random Assignment The group that is exposed to the therapyControl ConditionThe group that receives no therapyRandom AssignmentAssigning participants to experimental and control conditions randomly minimizes pre-existing differences between the two groups, and reduces any potential experimenter biasSometime research participants out of enthusiasm or personal beliefs can affect the out come of an experiment. To control for such affects, a double-blind procedure is used, in which the participants and the experimenter’s assistants are not aware of which participants got real treatment and who got placebo.Psychology 7e in Modules
42Exploring Cause & Effect Many factors influence our behavior. Experiments (1) manipulate factors that interest us, while other factors are kept under (2) control.Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and effect relationships.
43Independent VariableAn Independent Variable is a factor manipulated by the experimenter. The effect of the independent variable (DV) is the focus of the study.For example, when examining the effects of cheese grits upon intelligence, cheese grits is the independent variable.OBJECTIVE 14| Explain the difference between an independent variable and a dependent variable.Psychology 7e in Modules
44Dependent VariableA Dependent Variable is a factor that may change in response to an independent variable. In psychology, it is usually a behavior or a mental process.For example, in our study on the effect of cheese grits upon intelligence, how much intelligence is the dependent variable.
46Below is a comparison of different research methods (pg. 39).
47Statistical Reasoning Statistical procedures analyze and interpret data.OBJECTIVE 15| Explain the importance of statistical principles, and give an example of their use in daily life.Union contributions for the last 2 electionsPsychology 7e in Modules
48Describing DataA meaningful description of data is important in research. Misrepresentation may lead to incorrect conclusions.OBJECTIVE 16| Explain how graphs can misrepresent data.Psychology 7e in Modules
49Measure(s) of Central Tendency A single score that represents a whole series of numbers Mode: The most frequently occurring score in a distribution.Mean: The arithmetic average of scores in a distribution obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores that were added together.Median: The middle score in a rank-ordered distribution.OBJECTIVE 17| Describe three measures of central tendency and tell which is most affected by extreme scores.Psychology 7e in Modules
50Measures of Central Tendency A Skewed Distribution
51Variation A measure of the difference in a series of numbers (statistics/data) Range: The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.Standard Deviation: A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean.OBJECTIVE 18| Explain two measures of variation.Psychology 7e in Modules
53When is a Difference Significant? Making InferencesWhen is a Difference Significant?Statistical significance is a statistical statement of how frequently an obtained result occurred by experimental manipulation or by chance.For psychologists this difference is measured through alpha level set at 5 percent.OBJECTIVE 20| Explain how psychologists decide whether differences are meaningful.Psychology 7e in Modules
54Confounding Variables Any variable, other than the independent variable, (IV) that could account for the results of your experiment. The CV could be a stimulus, not introduced by the researcher, that still invalidates the results.Culture could be a CV, if the differences between the cultures is not accounted for by the researcherPsychology 7e in Modules
55When is research unreliable? Personal BiasWhen is research unreliable?Representative samples are biased by the researchers personal belief and feelings.2. Variable observations are less reliable than less variable ones.OBJECTIVE 19| Identify three principles for making generalizations from samples.Psychology 7e in Modules
56Q1. Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life? FAQQ1. Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life?Ans: Artificial laboratory conditions are created to study behavior in simplistic terms. The goal is to find underlying principles that govern behavior.OBJECTIVE 21| Explain the value of simplified laboratory conditions in discovering general principles of behavior.Psychology 7e in Modules
57Q2. Does behavior depend on one’s culture? FAQQ2. Does behavior depend on one’s culture?Ans: Even when specific attitudes and behaviors vary across cultures, as they often do, the underlying processes are much the same.OBJECTIVE 22| Discuss whether psychological research can be generalized across cultures and genders.Ami Vitale/ Getty ImagesPsychology 7e in Modules
58Q3. Does behavior vary with gender? FAQQ3. Does behavior vary with gender?Ans: Yes. Biology determines our sex, and culture further bends the genders. However, in many ways woman and man are similarly human.
60Q5. Is it ethical to experiment on animals? FAQQ5. Is it ethical to experiment on animals?Ans: Yes. To gain insights to devastating and fatal diseases. All researchers who deal with animal research are required to follow ethical guidelines in caring for these animals.
61Q6. Is it ethical to experiment on people? FAQQ6. Is it ethical to experiment on people?Ans: Yes. Experiments that do not involve any kind of physical or psychological harm beyond normal levels encountered in daily life may be carried out.
63Q8. Is psychology potentially dangerous? FAQQ8. Is psychology potentially dangerous?Ans: It can be, but it is not. The purpose of psychology is to help humanity with problems such as war, hunger, prejudice, crime, family dysfunction, etc.