Presentation on theme: "Instructional Coaching: Principles & Practices"— Presentation transcript:
1Instructional Coaching: Principles & Practices Jim KnightUniversity of KansasCenter for Research on Learning
2What questions will we explore? What is the challenge we face in schools?What are the components of coaching?How do successful programs take a paradoxical approach to change?What is the partnership approach?
4But first…Why we came to study Instructional Coaching… a little back ground information
5What is the Center for Research on Learning? Founded in 1978Mission: Dramatically improve the performance of at-risk students in grades 4-12 through research-based interventions$80+ million dollars of contracted R&DInternational Professional Development Network275,000 teachers in 3,500 school districtsBob Bonspiel story
6The Strategic Instruction Model (SIM) CRLSIM is an integrated model of research-validated practices to address many of the needs of diverse learners. It has been under development for 25 years at the University of Kansas-Center for Research on Learning.These research-validated practices revolve around improving academic achievement through the implementation ofContent Enhancement Routines to help teachers promote greater understanding, remembering, and use of critical content andThe Learning Strategies Curriculum to increase student learning.Explain the writing class story--Bob Bonspiel Issa QaquishThat’s what got me interested in change, but why should you be worried about change?
7Topeka, Kansas Public Schools Home of Brown v. Board of Education34% do not graduate from high school61% receive free/reduced lunch19 % qualify for special servicesTopeka has #1 crime rate in U.S. cities under 200,000 population
8What is Pathways to Success? Instructional CoachesWriting StrategiesReading StrategiesLearning StrategiesContent EnhancementCHAMPsSTART ON TimePossible SelvesStrategic TutoringTelementoringCollege InformationCampus VisitsFamily School CoordinatorsOther InterventionsLynn explains the questioning activity--they have cards, if they have questions they should write them down, and at different points Lynn & Devona will answer the questionsJim’s the researcher, reads the books, but we do it ever day, so you get three points of view for the price of one
10There is urgent political pressure to improve instruction
11Comments for 2004 Maryland Special Education Administrator’s Conference Every school board member has come to me and asked me how we’re going to meet AYP. My superintendent has told me that we’re going to meet AYP. And yet, we had six schools last year who failed to make AYP ... This causes a lot of anxiety. I feel the pressure. This is real. I know that there are people who are literally worried that they may be fired because of AYP…
12I think there is some value in looking at AYP; it does help us focus on what we have to be doing. That’s how as a county we will be able to measure whether we’re making a difference. But I worry about the urgency it brings with it. It’s intense. Everyone wants results now! … I’m desperately concerned about the amount of time it will take to turn this around. You can’t turn the titanic around in one minute.I spoke with administrators from every county in Maryland.Everyone of them said that felt extra pressure to meet AYP
15Most of us share similar goals We want kids who …love learningsee their potentialhave achievable, challenging goalshave the skills, strategies, knowledge and whatever else they need to achieve those goals
16There is pressure to improve the way we interact with each other
17Meg Wheatley, Turning to one another We have never wanted to be alone. But today, we are alone. We are more fragmented and isolated from one another than ever before. Archbishop Desmond Tutu describes it as “a radical brokenness in all of existence.”Meg Wheatley, Turning to one another
18But change personally and professionally is difficult.
19And the personal experience of change is complicated
20Let’s talk about change Identify:A change that you have experienced (personally or externally motivated) that was successfulA change that you have experienced (personally or externally motivated) that was not successfulWhat are the reasons why one succeeded and one didn’tDiscuss your reasons with others and identify 1-3 common themes across all of your experiences
21Change is Complex (Prochaska, 1994) Pre-contemplationContemplationPreparationActionMaintenanceTermination
22I’ve interviewed more than 150 people regarding professional development in schools from more than ten states in a wide variety of schools
23School culture can stop change dead in its tracks! Imagine it’s the day of a PD session. Folks out front of the auditorium, nice selection of sugar-coated, high carb refreshmentsA teacher says, I’m so glad it’s a PD day. I just love the chance to learn and grow and develop as a professionalOn the way out, she turns to her friends, I can’t wait to try out all of these great new practices tomorrow. We’re just so lucky to be able to learn like this.--IN most schools, we’d have to say she’s exhibiting what can only be called, deviant behavior
24Moving/Stuck Schools (Rosenholtz, 1991) 72 school districts
25There are other common reasons why change is difficult
26Decisions can be made poorly Personalities can get in the way People can be irrationalDecisions can be made poorlyPersonalities can get in the wayState, district, school, classroom goals can be out of alignmentAny change can be difficult to acceptFacing pressures from the board, the community, leaders can act in ways that are hard to graspSnap decisions, that have serious consequences--based on a one observation of one teacher, whole programs, successful programs have been cut--my guess is that they are frequently cutBecause many teachers have experienced ineffective PD, (one-shot sessions that sometimes lack relevance and have no follow-up) teachers lose their interest in PDIn fact, the teacher who loves PD, who says great today is a PD day on the way in, and says gee, I can’t wait to try this on the way out, that person exhibits what can only be described as deviant behaviorThis negative perception of PD is tough to take for someone who has dedicated his professional live to studing staff developmentNSDC, Director of Title One, teacher goes to heaven
28Attempt, Attack, Abandon Cycle Schools can be like people who want to get in shape, and go out and but the newest weight loss gizmo, then only use it a few times, toss it aside and then buy the next gizmo only to buy another and another without every doing the heavy lifting of really working to get in shape-maybe the program doesn’t work-maybe that was a bad day for the class-maybe the teacher didn’t receive effective professional development and isn’t implementing the program effectively-maybe the teacher isn’t very effective for other reasons that have nothing to do with the programOr-we tried that and the scores didn’t go up, so it obviously didn’t workAs Guskey has shown us, there could be many reasonsmaybe the teacher didn’t learn it,maybe the school structure, culture, conflicting priorities keep the program from being effectivemaybe it really wasn’t implemented with fidelitydid they learn it? Did the school stand in the way? Was it implemented with fidelity? If so, then we can make conclusions about achievement scores-if we don’t know that answer to these questions, we run the risk of throwing out a perfectly good programA leader of special ed spent four years managing a change programAbandonAttack
29“as the number of changes multiplies, and as the time demands increase, people approach a dysfunction threshold, a point where they lose the capacity to implement changes”--Darryl Conner, Managing at the speed of changeAlso called Innovation Overload
30What are the barriers to change you are experiencing in your school(s)?
35What is an Instructional Coach? an on-site professional developer who partners with educators to identify and assist with implementation of proven teaching methods
36An Instructional Coach Is on siteIs a professional developerPartnersIdentifiesProven teaching practices (research-based)Assists
37What is an instructional coach? Please watch this clip and consider two questions1. What behaviors (if any) does he exhibit that are appropriate for interactions with the teachers you know?2. What behaviors (if any) does he exhibit that are not appropriate for interactions with the teachers you know?
38What Are the Components of Instructional Coaching? Devona does all of this, stops where noted for people to fill out post-its
39Instructional Coaching EnrollIdentifyExplainModel (You watch me)Observe (I watch you)Explore (Collaborative Exploration of Data)SupportReflect
40Your learning experience Periodically, we’ll stop so that you can check your understandings with your groupAlso with your group, identify strategies, tactics, methods or other ideas that a coach might use to be more effective when implementing this practiceWrite down what you have learned on a “post-it” note and add the “post-it” to the appropriate flip chart
42Identify Teaching Practices ThroughTeacher-coach conversation (either formal or informal)Coach observationReferral
43Big Four Behavior Content Knowledge Instruction Formative Assessment Questions we use to shape our thinking, not questions we ask our collaborating teachers.Explain that more is to come later
44Explaining Interventions Read, re-read, read againUnderline, mark with post-itsTake notes, draw mind mapsWrite scripts, presentationsUse stories, analogies, punchy phrases,
45Model (You watch me!) Co-construct an observation form Goal: To show a teacher exactly how to implement a particular interventionBe fully aware of critical teaching practices you need to modelEnsure that teacher knows the purpose of the model lessonProvide concrete description of what you’ll be doingClarify roles for behavioral managementCo-construct an observation formEnsure your collaborating teacher knows how to use the form
48Observe (I Watch You!)Coach uses the observation form to watch for data related to:Critical teaching behaviorsFidelity to scientifically proven practicesStudent behavior and performanceAdditional specific teacher concerns
50Explore (Collaborative Exploration of Data) Based on the partnership principlesCoach and teacher identify what data will be gatheredCoach uses the observation formThey engage in dialogue about the data
51“The helping hand strikes again!” Many a relationship has been damaged and a work setting poisoned by perfectly delivered constructive feedback…“The helping hand strikes again!”How the way we talk can change the way we work (Kegan & Lahey, p.128)
53Assumptions behind top-down feedback The first is that the perspective of the feedback giver (let’s call him the supervisor) – what he sees and thinks, his feedback-is right, is correct. An accompanying assumption is that there is only one correct answer. What you put these two assumptions together, they amount to this: the supervisor has the one and only correct view of the situation. (We call this “the super vision assumption”; that is, the supervisor has super vision.) (p.128)
59Instructional Coaching (Knight, 2005) (n = 82) 10% = Joyce & Showers85% = six weeks after summer workshop we surveyed teachers who were in schools that had teachers who had attend summer workshops. 70/82 were implementing interventionsInstructional Coaching, that involves the components I described earlier, enrollment, preconferencing (to identify and explain interventions), Model Demonstration Lessons MDLs, Observation, CED, and ongoing collaboration--leads to meaningful changes
60Table one: Teachers’ perceptions of the value of observing Instructional Coaches modeling practices (n = 107)Do teachers think watching a coach model practices made it easier to implement?6.51Do teachers think watching a coach model practices increased their fidelity to instructional practices?6.4Do teachers think watching a coach model practices made them more confident about implementing?6.22Do teachers think they learned other teaching strategies while watching a coach model?6.13Do teachers think coaches have enough content knowledge to model all the instruction in teachers’ classes.3.18
61Teacher Interviews 13 teachers were interviewed in 2004-05 Each teacher identified modeling as a central part of their learning with the coach
62Time to reflect Identify one idea you want to act on: What do you feel?What do you think?What are you going to do?
67Top down, by itself, doesn’t work “the direct approach of naming the goal and mobilizing to achieve it does not, and cannot work in something as complex as change agentry”Michael Fullan
68“There is nothing quite as practical as a good theory” Our theory“There is nothing quite as practical as a good theory”Kurt Lewin
69We take a partnership approach Our work embodies the principles of equality, choice, voice, reflection, dialogue, praxis, and reciprocity“We want to be just like any other teacher in the school”
70But… Bottom-up alone is not sufficient Teachers may choose not to change when they need to improveStrategies may not get cued in additional classroomsThere may be a lack of coherence in what is implemented in schools
71So the principal …Remains the instructional leader (through partnership)Assesses teachers’ use of interventionsLeads teachers to put interventions in their personal development plansApplies pressure, but respects teachers’ professional discretion
72How should coaches coach principals? Work from the partnership perspectiveEstablish weekly one-to-one meetings with principalsDraw up a weekly agenda addressing your most pressing issuesEducate principals about interventions each weekDiscuss individual teachers and teamsEncourage school-wide implementation of interventions
73Discuss with your partner What can you do next week to start turning this paradoxical idea into an action?
75Interventions that are embraced are powerful & easy ideas, values, technologies that do the job with the least demand on psychic energy will survive. An appliance that does more work with less effort will be preferredMihalyi Csikszentmihalyi-this also applies to knowledge transfer in schools; interventions that are powerful and easy to use are going to be adopted by teachers
76How do we ensure they’re powerful? Using scientifically based interventions that achieved socially significant resultsTargeting standardsTargeting teachers’ most pressing needsUsing checklists, in-class demonstrations, and feedback to ensure that teachers learn research-based practices
77How do we make it easy? Prepare materials Provide as much support as necessary & no moreSimplify & translate teacher manuals (TPOV)Observe and collaborateUse Observation formsModel in the classroom
78Discuss with your partner What can you do next week to start turning this paradoxical idea into an action?
81How do coaches spread healthy viruses in schools? Make sure that your first collaborations are extremely well done (easy, powerful, validating)Partner with the principal to apply pressure and support respectfullyCommunicate successes widely through the use of newsletters and other forms of communicationIdentify teachers with informal power in the schoolThe nature of this partnership is complex. The principal applies pressure without being coercive. We need to improve time on task, and LaVonne is here to help you. If you need something from me, please let me know, if you have your own thing you want to do fine, if you want to work with LaVonne, she can help you create CHAMPs expectations, which might really help you--but that’s your professional choice. What matters is that we figure out a way to increase time on task.
82How do coaches identify teachers with informal power? Talk with principal and other leaders in the schoolTalk with other teachersObserve interactions inStaff loungeTeam meetingsInformal settings
83How do Instructional Coaches build coherence? Build coherence after there is a critical mass of support for teachersWork towardsInstitutionalizing changesTeaching interventions across teamsCreating leadership teamsIncorporating interventions into School Improvement Teams
84Discuss with your partner What can you do next week to start turning this paradoxical idea into an action?
86Our goal:internal commitment (Chris Argyris, 2000) Anyone with power can demand commitmentBut, external commitmentis temporaryleads to poor practicesengenders resentmentInternal commitmentcan be permanentleads to high-quality practicesengenders positive attitudes
87Discuss with your partner What can you do next week to start turning this paradoxical idea into an action?
88Partnership Principles The theory behind coaching
89Partnership Principles EqualityPraxisDialogueChoiceVoiceReflectionReciprocityequality: a balance of powerpraxis: the integration of thinking and actingApart from inquiry, apart from the praxis, people cannot be truly human. Knowledge emerges ... through invention and reinvention, through the restless, impatient, continuing, hopeful inquiry people pursue in the world, with the world, and with each other.Paulo Friere, Pedagogy of the Oppresseddialogue: Bohm: etymology of dialogue and discussionA dialogue or conversation among individuals ... must be based on mutual respect, equality, a willingness to listen and to risk one’s prejudices and opinions.Bernsteinchoice: Blocksymbiosis: the natural outcome of authentic partnership is that when one wins, the partner also winsvoice: Frederick Taylor--input decreases effectiveness, Matsushita: we need to mobilize all of the intelligence in the organization
90Blaine Lee, The Power Principle Principles“The principles you live by create the world you live in; if you change the principles you live by, you will change your world.”Blaine Lee, The Power Principle
91But what about the research? I’m so glad you asked!
92Design Traditional Training advance organizer overheads summary statements every 20 minutesevery 10 minutes paused to ask questionsextensive elaboration of content on each overheadPartnership Learning (timed to be equal; same outline)Experiential Learningattending to images or questions while I readQuestion Recipesused to debrief almost all learning structuresTell me more about that ... How do you see this workingReflection Learning modelingThinking Devices modeling & feedbackStories M. Hunter; teaching experiencesCooperative Learning TTYN; scoring
93Engagement Form chi square: 46.90 [6 df ] [p = 0.00] engaging Partnership Learning: 89.3%Traditional Training: 40.1%not engagingPartnership Learning: 2.6% (2 people out of 74%)Traditional Training: 37.4
94Implementation Question** Partnership Learning: 59Traditional Training: 14**Now that you have learned about two strategies, which of the two do you believe you are most likely to teach?
95Moral purpose Fullan, M. (2001). Leading in a culture of change. Moral purpose, defined as making a difference in the lives of students, is a critical motivator for addressing the sustained task of complex reform. Passion and higher order purpose are required because the effort needed is gargantuan and must be morally worth doing. (p.18).
96Heifetz & Linsky (2003) Leadership on the line. When you lead people, you often begin with a desire to contribute to an organization or community, to help people resolve important issues, to improve the quality of their lives. Your heart is not entirely innocent, but you begin with hope and concern for people. Along the way, however, it becomes difficult to sustain those feelings when many people reject your aspirations as too unrealistic, challenging or disruptive. Results arrive slowly. You become hardened to the discouraging reality. Your heart closes up.Heifetz & Linsky (2003) Leadership on the line.
97Losing Heart Heifetz & Linsky (2003) Leadership on the line Quality of HeartBecomesDressed Up AsInnocenceCynicismRealismCuriosityArroganceAuthoritative knowledgeCompassionCallousnessThe thick skin of experience
98“As we try to improve, we are drawn to the large, dramatic, and splashy programs for change, but we are impacted more by the small and simple changes in our daily routines. We don’t change the world through epiphanies, but by doing lots of little things that add up to sustained transformation. Simple things are not always easy to change, but by improving one thing at a time, we make progress toward great things”—Dave Ulrich, writing to his great-great-grandfatherFrom Bill Jensen, What is your life’s work?