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Coaching Effective Teaching Strategies

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1 Coaching Effective Teaching Strategies
Have Essential questions posted around the room before presentation… As you come to end of presentation of each EQ stop—point to the EQ and ask participants to reflect and be ready to share out… Patricia M. Devino & Sarah L. Fitzsimons

2 The purpose of staff development is not just to implement isolated instructional innovations; its central purpose is to build strong collaborative work cultures that will develop the long-term capacity for change. Michael Fullan

3 Participants Will: Define the roles of a coach as they relate to implementing Effective Teaching Strategies and effective models for coaching. Practice coaching behaviors that influence best practices. Experience planning, reflecting, and problem solving conversations as an instructional coach. Review the research-based Effective Teaching Strategies in Step Four of the Data Team process.

4 Essential Questions What are the characteristics of an effective instructional coach, what do they need to know and be able to do? How do instructional coaches build teacher capacity for selecting, implementing, evaluating the impact of Effective Teaching Strategies and foster teacher reflection? How does an effective instructional coach help teachers use effective teaching strategies based on student data? Participants will discuss at tables these essential questions in order to activate their thinking and prepare for the days activities/information. (springboard conversation for the day)

5 Why Coaching? People in all walks of life- athletes, dancers, actors, businesspeople, lawyers- strive to continually improve their game. In order to do this they all have coaches of some sort. They hire life coaches, personal trainers, coaches. They hire their ‘coach’, then decide on what to work on, set a goal, and then begin to work on that goal- together. Coaches are change agents, engineers, they help people in schools build bridges: like relationships and coaches speak many languages---“admin speak” and “teacher speak” Trend in the country hiring executive coaches in schools--

6 Research on Instructional Coaching
Recent Research Indicates That With Classroom Coaching, Implementation rates rise… 85% - 90% One research study conducted by the University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning evaluated a group of 87 teachers from different schools.  The results of the study indicate that 85% of those teachers who receive ongoing support from instructional coaches implement newly learned instructional methods, a factor that enhances teacher quality. In another study conducted by the same group, research indicates that teachers who do not receive such support implement newly learned strategies at only a rate of 10% (Joyce and Showers, 2002). (a role of coach is to be an advocate for the ”right conditions”) This research indicates that coaching does indeed lead to successful adoption and effective use of proven instructional methods, with one crucial caveat: The right conditions--in the form of administrative support and qualified coaches--must be in place. In schools in which either of these elements is missing, implementation success rates have been low. Research indicates that teachers who are supported by instructional coaches are more likely to implement newly learned instructional strategies (University of Kansas, Center for Research on Learning). University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning

7 When coaching is successful, the person being coached begins to self- monitor personal performance the way their coach had monitored them in the beginning. Coaching is like scaffolding instruction for adults. “How do I scaffold my teaching?” With a focus on improving the learning for all students, instructional coaching will support teachers to deepen their understanding of: CONTENT KNOWLEDGE RESEARCH BASED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES HOW TO USE A VARIETY OF ASSESSMENTS MONITOR STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT

8 Instructional Coaching…
Builds capacity for effective instructional practices within specific content areas. Creates a partnership approach with teachers. “Customizes professional development to match each teacher’s needs and interests while they help the school establish a common understanding across all teachers.” (Sweeney, 2003) Quote from Taking the lead…

9 What are the characteristics of an effective instructional coach, what do they need to know and be able to do?

10 What is EFFECTIVE? EFFECTIVE is defined as success based on student outcomes– not did I like it, or did the students like it– but WAS IT EFFECTIVE?

11 What characteristics of an effective coach do you view in this video?
Watch this video and think about the characteristics of an effective coach. Before video set the stage--He starts to sing another person starts to sing– and then pretty soon everyone starts to sing… **Ask: After video: Ask again– where is the parallel …? TURN AND TALK: Take a few minutes to discuss parallels… Presenter—after Turn and Talk– leads discussion what did you come up with- Something universal about helping others, providing support, helping a child- helping someone find their successes which is at the heart of this- the heart of coaching. SCRIBE AUDIENCE OBSERVATIONS: creating anchor chart for defining effective coaching.

12 What are the parallels between what this athletic coach does and what an instructional coach does?
Table talk followed by whole group share.  Turn and Talk

13 Roles of an Instructional Coach
The roles of an instructional coach focuses on the working relationships between a teacher and the coach in order to increase the teacher’s capacity to: PLAN lessons based on the systematic study of student needs through looking at student data- data analysis THINK about the intentional choices teachers make in the instructional process. REFLECT with the coach on lessons as they implement instructional practices. (ETS) This process is cyclical and is characterized by teachers and coaches working at various levels within this coaching continuum based on STUDENT and STAFF needs.

14 Ten Roles of a Coach Classroom Supporter Resource Provider
Learning Facilitator School Leader Catalyst for Change Learner Resource Provider Data Coach Curriculum Specialist Instructional Specialist Mentor The overarching role of the coach is to build teacher capacity to implement effective instructional practices to improve student learning and performance. But all these roles can be attributed to an instructional coach. To learn more about these roles you may want to look at Taking The Lead by Joellen Killion of the NSDC. Resource Provider… • Assists teachers with materials, tools, information, etc. to support instruction Data Coach: Organizes and analyzes a school’s data • Facilitates data conversations among a school’s faculty • Supports teachers in using data to improve Instruction Curriculum Specialist: The “what” of teaching • Helps teachers use the national, state and district curriculum standards to plan instruction and assessment • Helps teachers use the curriculum to analyze students’ strengths and target areas Instructional Specialist: Is the “how” of teaching • Assists teachers in designing instruction to meet the needs of all students • Shares multiple instructional processes/strategies • Coordinates with other specialists in the school • Helps teachers manage the pacing of instruction (e.g., depth vs. breadth)

15 Effective Teaching Strategies and Coaching Roles
Nudge your neighbor to discuss which roles apply and why? activity…How many did each group find? ( how these roles apply to coaches and ETS…) Share out/debrief All roles apply to Instructional coaching>>>The coach’s major role is to provide professional development and support to teachers to improve classroom instruction. This typically involves organizing school wide professional development and then structuring in-class training, which includes demonstrations, modeling, support for teacher trials of new instruction, and coaching feedback. (“Literacy Coaching For Change,” Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP MARCH Camille L. Z. Blachowicz, Connie Obrochta, and Ellen Fogelberg.

16 Coaching’s Big Four Content Instructional Practices
Assessment for Learning Classroom Management Handout 4 Jim Knight, University of Kansas

17 Essential Question Reflection
What are the characteristics of an effective instructional coach, what do they need to know and be able to do? What's the Big Idea?  Have people using a notecard or some type of notetaking template.  Ask EQ 1 to help reflection– (non fiction writing piece) Create anchor chart of Big Ideas from audience Conscious competence (Howell, 1982): skill, ability, etc. How we learn--

18 Essential Question 2 How do instructional coaches build teacher capacity for selecting, implementing, evaluating the impact of Effective Teaching Strategies, and fostering teacher reflection? Art and Science of Teaching has teacher daily reflection questions….

19 Selecting Effective Teaching Strategies

20 Interventions that are embraced are powerful & easy
Ideas, values, technologies that do the job with the least demand on psychic energy will survive. An appliance that does more work with less effort will be preferred Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi The Jim Knight story of using technology when jogging… Use a story you have had experience with that has helped to demonstrate making your life easier… Effective is not did I like it? But was it effective? Quote explanation------This also applies to knowledge transfer in schools; interventions that are powerful and easy to use are going to be adopted by teachers

21 How do we ensure they’re powerful?
Using scientifically based interventions that result in increased student achievement Targeting standards Targeting students’ most pressing needs Using checklists, in-class demonstrations, and feedback to ensure that teachers research-based practices are implemented with fidelity

22 Review of Effective Teaching Strategies
Similarities and Differences Summarizing and Note Taking Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Homework and Practice Nonlinguistic Representation Cooperative Learning Setting Goals and Providing Feedback Generating and Testing Hypothesis Questions, Cues, and Advanced Organizers Non-Fiction Writing Handout 5 add non- fiction writing

23 Pre-lesson Conference Selection of Effective Teaching Strategies
Determine the stage of learning: Are you introducing new knowledge or do you want the students to practice, review, and apply knowledge already taught? See handout 6 for a tool to help teachers think about instructional strategies. Have ideas shared out by participants: To introduce new knowledge: Anticipatory sets KWL/KNU To Practice, review, and apply knowledge… Develop ideas, new learning Read for information Write to clarify understanding Direct instruction Model Guided Practice Question Connect relevance, authenticity Summarize Develop conclusions Elevate applications, thinking Produce evidence of understanding Solve problems, investigate Do something relevant with new information Activities to provide focus at end of lesson/unit: Give students clear assessments of their progress on each learning goal. Have students assess themselves on each learning goal and compare these assessments with those of the teacher. Have students articulate what they have learned about the content and about themselves as learners.

24 Beginning Stages Activate prior knowledge, provide background information, hook students: Set Objectives Provide Feedback Questions, Cues, Advanced Organizers Cooperative Learning Identifying Similarities and Differences What are some of the school wide needs you see? Are teachers having difficulties beginning lessons (initiations), ending lessons (closure)? Decisions will come from observations, listening to teachers and looking at data with the teachers…

25 During the Lesson Identify strategies and activities that will be used to support the teaching objectives and determine how will students receive feedback on their progress: Nonlinguistic Representation Note Taking and Summarizing Questions, Cues, Advanced Organizers Cooperative Learning

26 End of Lesson Tie new knowledge to existing knowledge and future knowledge, reflect, and evaluate: Provide Recognition Reinforce Effort Summarize Evaluate Self-Assessment

27 Implementing Effective Teaching Strategies

28 Look at this episode of I Love Lucy in the chocolate factory… Cue the audience? Or what are the implications of coaching you view in this clip? How could Lucy and Ethel benefit from coaching in this clip? Sample Questions for discussion.. 1. What observations would you make about this clip? 2. What elements of the situation made failure likely? Having identified the failure- producing elements, explore the possibility that some of the same elements are in your school’s classrooms.. What are they? 3. How did Lucy and Ethel deal with change? What similarities do you see in your own schools dealing with change? 4. What might Lucy and Ethel have done to make the situation more successful? How can you be more successful in dealing with change in your school/ district? 5. As you think about the clip and change in your team, school, organization, what should you keep in mind as you go about your daily work? 6. What factors promote successful change? What factors inhibit successful change? Which of those factors are operating in your environment today? How can you increase your chances of success? DEPENDING ON LENGTH OF CLIP SHOWING: If showing where Lucy is trying to dip the chocolate by observing co-worker---- ask questions based on instructional coaching… What could have helped Lucy be more successful in the process of learning how to dip the chocolate like the co-worker? Compare similarities and differences– between Maurice Cheeks video and this one…

29 Instructional Coaching Components
Enroll Teachers Identify Need Select Effective Teaching Strategies Model Demonstration Lesson Co-Plan and Co-Teach Collaborative Reflection Observe Collaboratively Explore Data (CED) Model—I do (You watch me) Co-teach—we do Observe- You do (I watch you) Collaborative Exploration of Data:: Based on the partnership principles • Involves observations to open up dialogue, rather than to state a single truth • Should be – constructive, but provisional – empathetic and respectful • Coach and teacher identify what data will be gathered

30 Implementing ETS Model Demonstration Lessons (I do – You watch me)
Co-Plan and Co-Teach (We DO) Observe (You Do- I watch you) Handout 7 Instructional planning meeting agenda Handout 8 Differentiation strategies

31 Instructional Coaching Continuum
E. Teacher Refines Implementation with Coaching Feedback D. Teacher Transitions to Guided Practice with Coaching Support C. Coach/ Teacher Build Co-Teaching Relationship B. Committing to a Learning Relationship A. Building Common Knowledge & Experience- The on-going foundation for a professional learning community The gradual release of responsibility from coach to teacher- is key to effective coaching. Instructional coaches understand CHANGE AS A PROCESS. Essential to a successful coaching model is the building of collegial relationships between coaches, teachers and principal. A coaching Continuum is supported through these collegial relationships which provide multiple points of entry for teachers. HANDOUT pg: Unpack the handout (Coaching Continuum) using our experience as coaches. Which level do you spend most of your time? Where are you on the continuum…Read, Reflect, compare out with others…Problem solve how to get further---

32 Planning Conference (Pre-Brief)
The teacher and coach confer to: Clarify learning goals (teacher and student) Collaboratively plan tasks or work the students will complete to achieve the intended outcomes Determine evidence of proficient student achievement Identify student or teacher behaviors the coach should observe Agree on the role(s) the teacher and the coach will perform during the lesson. As coach collaborative lesson planning is essential

33 In class support The teacher and the coach collaborate in the delivery of the planned lesson through these activities: Observation Demonstration lesson Co-Teaching Gradual release of responsibility from coach to teacher

34 Evaluating Impact of Effective Teaching Strategies

35 Providing Feedback Not evaluating teacher, but evaluating the effectiveness of the Effective Teaching Strategies as evidenced by: fidelity of implementation impact on student outcomes. I took out the word evaluating because it is loaded and because providing feedback connects to the teaching strategies.  Evaluation on 2 levels – did students do better– root cause if effective implementation and student outcome– actual learning…

36 Debriefing The teacher and the coach meet to discuss:
Degree to which students have mastered the learning outcomes Effective Teaching Strategies used by the coach/teacher (depending on if observation, model lesson, & or co-teaching stage) Instructional adjustments the teacher made during the lesson

37 Feedback Goal of feedback is to improve current situations without criticizing or offending. Should be: Descriptive rather than Evaluative (visible) Specific instead of general Given only when requested Given as soon as possible Realistic Positive ** realistic with changes– change can’t happen overnight…

38 Warm V. Cool Feedback WARM COOL Supportive Strength oriented
Focus on solutions Promotes positive learning Impersonal Needs oriented Focus on the problem Provides constructive criticism

39 Questions to Ask When Debriefing/ Providing Feedback?
What did you see? What was the focus on learning goals? What standard was being used and are the procedures and assignments appropriate? How will the student achieve according to the standard being addressed? What questions were being asked? Did the lesson end with the focused learning goals?

40 Cont’d What ETS did you see incorporated in the lesson? Was the ETS presented with fidelity? What needs did you see? What suggestions do you have for teaching this standard? How can we support the teacher for future student learning? How can you work together to incorporate collaboration on this lesson? Keep? Delete? Or Substitute? Your suggestions….

41 Cont’d What did you learn about incorporating ETS in this lesson?
What did you learn about this teacher’s lesson from this session?

42 Classroom Check-up Feedback Form
Teacher: ____________________ Conference date: ____/____/____ Classroom Check-up Feedback Form An easy and friendlier non-evaluative form to help provide feedback. Time on Task Opportunities to Respond (OTR) Ratio of Interactions Disruptions Effective Teaching Strategies Goal area(s):_________________________________ Intervention(s): _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Adapted from Jim Knight

43 How would you provide feedback to this teacher?
A fun feedback exercise…

44 Reflection “The teacher cannot rely on either instinct alone or on prepackaged sets of techniques. Instead, she or he must think about what is taking place, what the options are and so on, in a critical, analytical way. In other words the teacher must engage in reflection.” John W. Brubacher, Charles W. Case, and Timothy G. Reagan

45 Reflection The teacher and the coach independently and systematically reflect on how their collaborative work fosters the development of the students’ understanding. Do this on an ongoing basis to re-examine goals so that there is a cycle of continuous improvement.

46 Questions to Foster Reflection
What was I trying to accomplish? How did I go about completing the lesson and solving problems I had along the way (process)? What did I do well (strengths)? What did I have difficulty with (weaknesses)? What have I learned/what would I do differently?

47 Reflection Questions, cont’d
What worked well? What did we learn? Did our conversations lead us closer to our goals? How? Did we focus on the lesson or on other issues? Did we do what we set out to do? How can we improve on this to make coaching collaborating on lesson plans more significant part of our work?

48 Essential Question 2 How do instructional coaches build teacher capacity for selecting, implementing, and evaluating the impact of Effective Teaching Strategies and foster teacher reflection? What's the Big Idea? 

49 Essential Question 3 How does an effective instructional coach help teachers use Effective Teaching Strategies based on student data? Guided experience with collaborative lesson planning mock data issues and samples of student work– make selections implementing and evaluating. Student grades referrals…develop guiding questions to carry them through Are the students learning?

50 Are the students learning?
Coaches: assist teachers in the gathering and analysis of formative assessment DATA about what students know and can do as they enter a learning experience; help teachers use the data analysis to design learning experiences at which students can be successful; and train teachers in the ongoing use of formative assessment data. Coaches need provide extensive training to teachers so they learn to use every piece of student work, all student responses, and student questions as data sources about how well students are learning. Even SUMMATIVE assessments become data sources—because we can determine whether or not individual students have mastered or are moving towards mastery of the identified standards.

51 The question we must teach teachers to ask is not did the students complete all the assignments and do their homework, but rather, did they learn what they were supposed to learn, did they retain it over time, and can they use it in ways that demonstrate understanding at a high level.

52 Coaching Collaboration Throughout the Data Team Process
Commitment Time/Agenda Norms Planning Structure “CED”– Collaborative exploration of data Commitment: Committed teacher and coach working together Time: designated time to meet Norms: Agreed upon ground rules and structures Planning: Examine Lesson/ Unit plans together Structure: Protocols: the structure for conversation, timeframe, guidelines, open and honest dialogue, build team culture and skills

53 Data Team Process Step 1: Collect and Chart Data
Step 2: Analyze Strengths and Obstacles Step 3: Establish SMART Goals Step 4: Select Instructional Strategies Step 5: Determine Results Indicators Step 6: Monitor and Evaluate Step 6 is an added step- but has been implied throughout the process- (as results indicators help us to do this) The data team process is an exercise in problem solving.  We are encouraged to celebrate the data but more likely than not we focus on the obstacles and the problems.  It's human nature.  We can become more efficient, more effective and more solution oriented when we utilize the data team process with fidelity.  The effective teaching strategies are tools every teacher should have in their toolkit (teaching repetoire).  Having a coach to model and support the implementation of effective teaching strategies will increase implementation and ultimately increas student achievement. 

54 Value of Collaboration Through Instructional Coaching
See what to avoid and/or include in our practices. To inform lesson development and instruction. Self-assessment and self-awareness of strengths and areas of growth. Insights into lesson development and Effective Teaching Strategies. Possible language changes Implementation of research based practices curriculum and lesson development reflective and insightful

55 Collaborative Lesson Planning
Collaborate on lesson/ unit plans using template To inform instruction To ensure lessons incorporate ETS more frequently Used by teacher(s) and coach pre and post lesson Follow Norms Follow a Structure Helps us break down isolation

56 Meet Sally Friendly See handout for Sally Friendly Activity

57 How does an effective instructional coach help teachers use Effective Teaching Strategies based on student data? What's the big idea?

58 Your Feedback Please take the time to complete the feedback form provided. Make sure you have signed the CALI sign- in sheet before you leave (if you have not done so already). Please initial signature on your way out.


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