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3The Impact of School, Family, and Community Connections on Student Achievement Good news and bad news – which first?Good – it will take you literally centuries to lose your mind (more on that later)Bad – many assumptions and beliefs we as teachers have held have been dispelled by current brain research.More good news - much of what we’ve been doing instinctively – because we’re good teachers – or because we’re following research anecdotal is good. So today – affirm the good things and dispel some mythsHow do we know what the brain is doing? Until the explosion of modern technology, had to go by autopsies and make speculations and hypotheses that may or may not have been able to be tested. In neuroscientists belonged to the International Society of Neuroscientists. By 2000 over 30,000 members. Can actually see the brain in action via non-invasive PET scans and MRI. The newer generations of MRI allow us to measure sequence of thinking across very narrow areas of brain: an image every 50 milliseconds!Rebecca DerengeOffice of Instructional ServicesWest Virginia Department of Education
4What is Title I?It’s the nation’s largest federal assistance program for schools.
5The goal of Title I is to help every child get a high-quality education.
6Title I helps students, teachers and parents Title I helps students, teachers and parents. The program can help: - children do better in school and feel better about themselves - teachers understand the needs and concerns of students and parents.
7The program can help: - parents understand their child and be more involved in the child’s education.
8Be active in your Title I program. Start by attending the annual Title I meeting. It’s a great way to:Learn more about Title I and your rights and responsibilities as a parent
9It’s a great way to:Work with other parents and teachers.Begin to plan and carry out programs.
10Know your rights.As the parent of a child in a Title I school, you have the right to:See progress reports on your child and the schoolRequest information about your child’s teacher’s qualifications.
11Know your rights.As the parent of a child in a Title I school, you have the right to:Help decide if Title I is meeting your child’s needs, and offer suggestions for improvement.
12The school-parent compact states the goals and responsibilities of parents, students and schools.
13How does Title I work?Federal, state and local governments work together.The federal government provides funding to the state. To get funds each state must submit a plan describing:What all students are expected to know and be able to do.
14How does Title I work?Federal, state and local governments work together.The federal government provides funding to the state. To get funds each state must submit a plan describing:The standards of performance that all students are expected to meet
15How does Title I work?Federal, state and local governments work together.The federal government provides funding to the state. To get funds each state must submit a plan describing:Ways to measure the schools’ progress.
16The state educational agency (SEA) sends the money to school districts based on the number of families below a set income level.
17The local school district (called a local education agency, or LEA) identifies eligible schools and distributes Title I resources.
18Title I may also help students by offering parenting skills workshops for parents.
19Title I schools work to: Identify students most in need of educational help (students do not have to meet income standards to qualify)Set goals for improvementMeasure student progress using standards set in the State’s Title I planDevelop programs that add to regular classroom instruction.Involve parents in all aspects of the program
20A “parental involvement policy” helps parents understand and take part in the school’s efforts.
21Title I programs generally offer: More teachers and assistantsMore training for school staffExtra time for instructionA variety of teaching methods and materialsSmaller classesCounseling and mentoringCareer and college information
22Title I serves children through one of two types of programs: SchoolwideTargeted Assistance
23Be a part of Title I’s success. Participate in your child’s education.You can:Attend school eventsTalk about homework with your childShow how schoolwork relates to daily life
24Be a part of Title I’s success. Participate in your child’s education.You can:Make an appointment to visit the classroom as an observer, volunteer or assistant.Join parents’ organizations.
25Be a part of Title I’s success. Participate in your child’s education.You can:Ask the school about trainings that the LEA and school must provide to help parents participate in Title I.
26Be aware of your child’s performance. Attend parent-teacher conferencesRequest additional meetings, if needed.Keep teachers informed about events and issues that may affect your child’s work or behavior.
27What would you do?If you are a new principal in a troubled inner city school?If you are a parent leader or a teacher concerned about improving the reading proficiency of the children in your school?If you are a legislator or state educational agency employee seeking ways to get more schools to work effectively with the families and community to increase student achievement?
28You Could…..Look at results of studies that show a convincing link between student achievement and various approaches to parent and community involvement.Search for some tested ways that teachers and parents have worked together to improve reading skills and test scores.Learn about some promising approaches that might be aided by new policies or increased funding.
29National Center for Family & Community Connections with Schools A New Wave of EvidenceThe Impact of School, Family, and Community Connections on Student AchievementNational Center for Family & Community Connections with SchoolsAnne T. HendersonKaren L. Mapp
30Research on Characteristics of High Performing Schools A clear and shared focusHigh Standards and expectations for all studentsEffective school leadershipHigh levels of collaboration and communication
31Research on Characteristics of High Performing Schools 5.Curriculum, instruction, and assessments aligned with state standards.6. Frequent monitoring of teaching and learning7. Focused professional development8. A supportive learning environment9. High levels of parent and community involvement
32Synthesis of Research Studies Studies are divided into three categories:Impact of Parent and Community Involvement on Student AchievementEffective strategies to connect schools, family, and community, andParent and community organizing efforts to improve schools.
33The section on Research provides summaries of the 51 studies described in A New Wave of Evidence – Annual Synthesis 2002
34Joyce L. Epstein Ph.D., Sociology, Johns Hopkins University How do the studies define parent involvement?Joyce Epstein and her colleagues at the Center on Family, School, and Community Partnerships at Johns Hopkins University, have developed a useful framework of six types of parent involvement. It shows how parent involvement is frequently broken down and defined. Many researchers used some variation of this framework.Joyce L. Epstein Ph.D., Sociology, Johns Hopkins University
35The Keys to Successful Partnerships Parenting SkillsCommunicatingVolunteeringLearning at HomeDecision-MakingCollaborating with the Community
37Studies on the Impact of Parent and Community Involvement on Student Achievement Key FindingPrograms and interventions that engage families in supporting their children’s learning at home are linked to higher student achievement.
38Studies on the Impact of Parent and Community Involvement on Student Achievement Key FindingThe continuity of family involvement at home appears to have a protective effect on children as they progress through our complex education system. The more families support their children’s learning and educational progress, the more their children tend to do well in school and continue their education.
39Studies on the Impact of Parent and Community Involvement on Student Achievement Key FindingFamilies of all cultural backgrounds, education, and income levels encourage their children, talk with them about school, help them plan for higher education, and keep them focused on learning and homework. In other words, all families can, and often do, have a positive influence on their children’s learning.
40Studies on the Impact of Parent and Community Involvement on Student Achievement Key FindingParent and community involvement that is linked to student learning has a greater effect on achievement than more general forms of involvement. To be effective, the form of involvement should be focused on improving achievement and be designed to engage families and students in developing specific knowledge and skills.
41Studies on Effective Strategies to Connect Schools, Families and Community Key FindingPrograms that successfully connect with families and community invite involvement, are welcoming, and address specific parent and community needs.
42Studies on Effective Strategies to Connect Schools, Families and Community Key FindingParent involvement programs that are effective in engaging diverse families recognize, respect, and address cultural and class differences.
43Studies on Effective Strategies to Connect Schools, Families and Community Key FindingEffective programs to engage families and community embrace a philosophy of partnership. The responsibility for children’s educational development is a collaborative enterprise among parents, school staff, and community members.
44Studies on Parent and Community Organizing Efforts to Improve Schools Key FindingOrganized initiatives to build parent and community leadership to improve low-performing schools are developing in low-income urban areas and the rural South. These community organizing efforts use strategies that are aimed at establishing a power base to hold schools and school districts accountable for low student achievement. They have contributed to changes in policy, resources, personnel, school culture, and educational programs.
45How can we put these findings into action? Recognize that all parents regardless of income, education, or cultural background – are involved in their children’s learning and want their children to do well.Design programs that will support families to guide their children’s learning, from preschool through high school.Develop the capacity of school staff to work with families.
46How can we put these findings into action? Link efforts to engage families, whether based at school or in the community, to student learning.Build families social and political connections.Focus efforts to engage families and community members on developing trusting and respectful relationships.
47How can we put these findings into action? Embrace a philosophy of partnership and be willing to share power with families.Build strong connections between schools and community organizations.Include families in all strategies to reduce the achievement gap among, white middle-class students and low-income students.