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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides for Essential Biology, Second Edition & Essential.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides for Essential Biology, Second Edition & Essential."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides for Essential Biology, Second Edition & Essential Biology with Physiology Neil Campbell, Jane Reece, and Eric Simon Presentation prepared by Chris C. Romero CHAPTER 4 A Tour of the Cell Figures 4.17 – 4.23

2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cells require a constant energy supply to do all the work of life CHLOROPLASTS AND MITOCHONDRIA: ENERGY CONVERSION

3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chloroplasts are the sites of photosynthesis, the conversion of light energy to chemical energy CHLOROPLASTS Figure 4.17 Inner and outer membranes of envelope Space between membranes Stroma (fluid in chloroplast) Granum

4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Mitochondria are the sites of cellular respiration, which involves the production of ATP from food molecules Mitochondria Figure 4.18 Outer membrane Inner membrane Cristae Matrix Space between membranes

5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The cytoskeleton is an infrastructure of the cell consisting of a network of fibers THE CYTOSKELETON: CELL SHAPE AND MOVEMENT

6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings One function of the cytoskeleton Maintaining Cell Shape Figure 4.19A –Provide mechanical support to the cell and maintain its shape

7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The cytoskeleton can change the shape of a cell –This allows cells like amoebae to move Figure 4.19B

8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cilia and flagella are motile appendages Cilia and Flagella

9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Flagella propel the cell in a whiplike motion Cilia move in a coordinated back-and- forth motion Figure 4.20A, B

10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Some cilia or flagella extend from nonmoving cells –The human windpipe is lined with cilia Figure 4.20C

11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Most cells secrete materials that are external to the plasma membrane CELL SURFACES: PROTECTION, SUPPORT, AND CELL-CELL INTERACTIONS

12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Plant cells are encased by cell walls Plant Cell Walls and Cell Junctions Figure 4.21 –These provide support for the plant cells Walls of two adjacent plant cells Vacuole Plasmodesmata (channels between cells)

13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Animal cells lack cell walls Animal Cell Surfaces and Cell Junctions –They secrete a sticky covering called the extracellular matrix –This layer helps hold cells together

14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Animal cells connect by various types of junctions –Tight junctions –Adhering junctions –Communicating junctions

15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 4.22 Extracellular matrix (a) Tight junctions (b) Anchoring junctions (c) Communicating junctions Plasma membranes of adjacent cells Extracellular matrix

16 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Phospholipids were probably among the organic molecules on the early Earth EVOLUTION CONNECTION: THE ORIGIN OF MEMBRANES

17 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings When mixed with water, phospholipids spontaneously form membranes Figure 4.23

18 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Two Major Categories of Cells SUMMARY OF KEY CONCEPTS Visual Summary 4.1

19 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A Fluid Mosaic of Lipids and Proteins Membrane Structure and Function Visual Summary 4.2 Outside cell Phospholipid Protein Hydrophilic Hydrophobic Hydrophilic Cytoplasm (inside cell)


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