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Parts of the Cell. 4.4 Eukaryotic cells are partitioned into functional compartments There are four life processes in eukaryotic cells that depend upon.

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Presentation on theme: "Parts of the Cell. 4.4 Eukaryotic cells are partitioned into functional compartments There are four life processes in eukaryotic cells that depend upon."— Presentation transcript:

1 Parts of the Cell

2 4.4 Eukaryotic cells are partitioned into functional compartments There are four life processes in eukaryotic cells that depend upon structures and organelles –Manufacturing –Breakdown of molecules –Energy processing –Structural support, movement, and communication Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

3 4.4 Eukaryotic cells are partitioned into functional compartments Manufacturing involves the nucleus, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

4 4.4 Eukaryotic cells are partitioned into functional compartments Breakdown of molecules involves lysosomes, vacuoles, and peroxisomes –Breakdown of an internalized bacterium by a phagocytic cell would involve all of these Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

5 4.4 Eukaryotic cells are partitioned into functional compartments Energy processing involves mitochondria in animal cells and chloroplasts in plant cells Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

6 4.4 Eukaryotic cells are partitioned into functional compartments Structural support, movement, and communication involve the cytoskeleton, plasma membrane, and cell wall Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

7 Nucleoid Ribosomes Plasma membrane Cell wall Capsule Flagella Bacterial chromosome Pili

8 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Rough endoplasmic reticulum CYTOSKELETON: NUCLEUS: Nuclear envelope Chromosomes Nucleolus Ribosomes Golgi apparatus Plasma membrane Mitochondrion Peroxisome Centriole Lysosome Microtubule Intermediate filament Microfilament

9 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Rough endoplasmic reticulum CYTOSKELETON: NUCLEUS: Nuclear envelope Chromosome Nucleolus Ribosomes Golgi apparatus Plasma membrane Mitochondrion Peroxisome Cell wall Central vacuole Microtubule Intermediate filament Microfilament Cell wall of adjacent cell Chloroplast Plasmodesmata

10 Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic tails Symbol Phosphate group

11 Hydrophilic heads Hydrophobic tails Proteins Hydrophobic region of protein Inside cell Hydrophilic region of protein Outside cell

12 Nucleus Double-layer membrane with pores. Connected to ER. Ribosomes made in a part called the nucleolus.

13 Two membranes of nuclear envelope Nucleus Nucleolus Chromatin Pore Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes

14 4.9 The endoplasmic reticulum is a biosynthetic factory There are two kinds of endoplasmic reticulum— smooth and rough Smooth ER lacks attached ribosomes Rough ER lines the outer surface of membranes –They differ in structure and function –However, they are connected Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

15 Smooth ER Nuclear envelope Ribosomes Rough ER

16 4.9 The endoplasmic reticulum is a biosynthetic factory Smooth ER is involved in a variety of diverse metabolic processes (ex: synthesis of many types of lipids) Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

17 4.9 The endoplasmic reticulum is a biosynthetic factory Rough ER makes additional membrane for itself and proteins destined for secretion (these proteins are transported in vesicles) Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

18 Transport vesicle buds off Secretory protein inside trans- port vesicle Glycoprotein Polypeptide Ribosome Sugar chain Rough ER

19 Golgi Receives proteins in vesicles from the ER. Modifies proteins- adds sugar chains to “mark” them for a certain destination. Puts the proteins back into vesicles and sends them out.

20 4.11 Lysosomes are digestive compartments within a cell A lysosome is a membranous sac containing digestive enzymes –The enzymes and membrane are produced by the ER and transferred to the Golgi apparatus for processing –The membrane serves to safely isolate these potent enzymes from the rest of the cell Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

21 4.11 Lysosomes are digestive compartments within a cell One of the several functions of lysosomes is to remove or recycle damaged parts of a cell –The damaged organelle is first enclosed in a membrane vesicle –Then a lysosome fuses with the vesicle, breaking down the damaged organelle Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Animation: Lysosome Formation

22 Vacuoles Functions: storage, maintaining water balance, holding pigments, etc. Membrane-bound.

23 Nucleus Chloroplast Central vacuole

24 Nucleus Contractile vacuoles

25 Mitochondria Convert sugar (glucose) into ATP (adenosine triphosphate)- small energy packets. This is called cellular respiration. Have two membranes (inner and outer)

26 Mitochondrion Intermembrane space Inner membrane Cristae Matrix Outer membrane

27 Chloroplasts Use the sun’s energy to create glucose from carbon dioxide and water (photosynthesis)

28 Chloroplast Stroma Inner and outer membranes Granum Intermembrane space

29 Engulfing of photosynthetic prokaryote Chloroplast Mitochondrion Some cells Host cell Mitochondrion Host cell Engulfing of aerobic prokaryote

30 4.17 The cell’s internal skeleton helps organize its structure and activities The cytoskeleton is composed of three kinds of fibers –Microfilaments (actin filaments) support the cell’s shape and are involved in motility –Intermediate filaments reinforce cell shape and anchor organelles –Microtubules (made of tubulin) shape the cell and act as tracks for motor protein Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

31 Vesicle ATP Receptor for motor protein Microtubule of cytoskeleton Motor protein (ATP powered) (a) MicrotubuleVesicles (b) 0.25 µm


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