7Nucleus Rough ER Smooth ER Plasma membrane Fig. 6-16-1 Figure 6.16 Review: relationships among organelles of the endomembrane systemPlasma membrane
8Nucleus Rough ER Smooth ER cis Golgi Plasma membrane trans Golgi FigNucleusRough ERSmooth ERcis GolgiFigure 6.16 Review: relationships among organelles of the endomembrane systemPlasma membranetrans Golgi
9Nucleus Rough ER Smooth ER cis Golgi Plasma membrane trans Golgi FigNucleusRough ERSmooth ERcis GolgiFigure 6.16 Review: relationships among organelles of the endomembrane systemPlasma membranetrans Golgi
12in the mitochondrial matrix Fig. 6-17Intermembrane spaceOuter membraneFree ribosomesin the mitochondrial matrixInner membraneCristaeFigure 6.17 The mitochondrion, site of cellular respirationMatrix0.1 µm
18WATER Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic tail WATER Fig. 7-2 Figure 7.2 Phospholipid bilayer (cross section)HydrophobictailWATER
19Phospholipid bilayer Hydrophobic regions of protein Hydrophilic Fig. 7-3PhospholipidbilayerFigure 7.3 The fluid mosaic model for membranesHydrophobic regionsof proteinHydrophilicregions of protein
20Fig. 7-7 Fibers of extracellular matrix (ECM) Glyco- Carbohydrate proteinCarbohydrateGlycolipidEXTRACELLULARSIDE OFMEMBRANEFigure 7.7 The detailed structure of an animal cell’s plasma membrane, in a cutaway viewCholesterolMicrofilamentsof cytoskeletonPeripheralproteinsIntegralproteinCYTOPLASMIC SIDEOF MEMBRANE
21Discussion Questions A Panoramic View of the Cell Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Explain why there are both upper and lower limits to cell size.Explain the advantages of compartmentalization in eukaryotic cells.
22Chapter ReviewInside of every cell there is some type of organization that allows cells to perform it’s life functions. Some cells are more complicated that others. In this assignment you will need to explain:a. the process by which a cell takes mRNA (a code for an enzyme) from the nucleus .b. converts it to an enzyme.c. and transports it outside the cell.a. the process by which Starch is taken into the cell.b. Broken down (digested).c. What organelle is it taken to and Why?a. What is the difference between Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes.b. In what type of cell would you find Plastids, Vacuoles and what’s their function.c. In what type of cells would you find Cilia and Flagella and what’s their function.UnicellularMulticellularLevels of OrganizationMetabolismsOrganellesEukaryotesProkaryotesRibosomesEndoplasmic ReticulumGolgi BodiesMitochondriaNucleusVacuolesCentriolesPlastidsChloroplastsChlorophyllLysosomesCiliaFlagellaSymbiotic Theory
23Vacuoles?Fluid filled, membrane bound structures for storage.
24Cytoskeleton? Gives support and shape to the cell. 2 Parts 1. Microfilaments = protein strands (actin & myosin)- Contractile proteins – support and help in cell movement.2. Microtubules = long thick proteins that stretch form the cell membrane to the nucleus. Help organelles move with in the cell
25Centrioles – Cilia / Flagella Centrioles = used in cell division (made of microtubules)PlayCilia and Flagella – microtubules surrounded by the cell membrane extending outside the cell used for locomotion
26Evolution of Eukaryotes Symbiotic Theory?Symbiosis?2 organisms living in close association.Prokaryotic Characteristics?No NucleusDNA = single, double stranded, circular chromosomesNo membrane bound organelles, but do have ribosomes (smaller)Mitochondria and Chloroplasts?Contain their own DNA, RNA and ribosomes that are similar to Prokaryotes.Ribosomes?Smaller in Prokaryotes yet similar enzymes for making proteins and Nucleic AcidsIt’s Logical but incomplete. Why?Nuclear Membrane?Various Membrane bound structures?And other eukaryotic structures?