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The Working Cell Figures 5.4 – 5.13

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Presentation on theme: "The Working Cell Figures 5.4 – 5.13"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Working Cell Figures 5.4 – 5.13
CHAPTER 5 The Working Cell Figures 5.4 – 5.13

2 Food Calories A calorie is the amount of energy that raises the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius

3 The kilocalorie is 1,000 calories
The unit used to measure the energy in food Figure 5.4a

4 The energy of calories in food is burned off by many activities
Figure 5.4b

5 ATP AND CELLULAR WORK The chemical energy of organic molecules is released in cellular respiration to make ATP in the mitochondria

6 ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
The Structure of ATP ATP (adenosine triphosphate) Consists of adenosine plus a tail of three phosphate groups Is broken down to ADP, accompanied by the release of energy Energy Adenosine Adenosine Phosphate transferred to other molecules Figure 5.5

7 ATP can energize other molecules by transferring phosphate groups
Phosphate Transfer ATP can energize other molecules by transferring phosphate groups This energy can be used to drive cellular work

8 (a) Mechanical work (b) Transport work (c) Chemical work Motor protein
Protein moved (a) Mechanical work Transport protein Solute Solute transported (b) Transport work ATP Reactants Product made (c) Chemical work Figure 5.6

9 The ATP Cycle Cellular work spends ATP ATP is recycled from ADP and phosphate through cellular respiration

10 ATP functions in what is called energy coupling, or the ATP cycle
Cellular respiration: chemical energy harvested from fuel molecules Energy for cellular work Figure 5.7

11 ENZYMES Metabolism is defined as the many chemical reactions that occur in organisms Few metabolic reactions occur without the assistance of enzymes

12 Activation Energy Activation energy
Is the energy that activates the reactants Triggers a chemical reaction

13 Enzymes Lower the activation energy for chemical reactions
barrier Enzyme Reactants Products (a) Without enzyme (b) With enzyme Figure 5.8

14 Each enzyme is very selective
Induced Fit Each enzyme is very selective It catalyzes specific reactions

15 Each enzyme recognizes a specific substrate
The active site fits to the substrate, and the enzyme changes shape slightly This interaction is called induced fit

16 Enzymes can function over and over again
This is a key characteristic of enzymes Substrate (sucrose) 1 Enzyme available with empty active site Active site 2 Substrate binds to enzyme Enzyme (sucrase) Fructose Glucose 4 Substrate is converted to products Product are released 3 Figure 5.9

17 Enzyme Inhibitors Enzyme inhibitors Can inhibit a metabolic reaction
Bind to the active site, as substrate impostors Substrate Inhibitor Substrate Active site Active site Enzyme Enzyme (a) Normal enzyme action (b) Enzyme inhibition by a substrate imposter Figure 5.10a, b

18 Other inhibitors Bind at a remote site, changing the enzyme’s shape
In some cases, this is called feedback regulation Substrate Active site Inhibitor Enzyme (c) Enzyme inhibition by a molecule that causes the active site to change shape Figure 5.10c

19 Working cells must control the flow of materials
MEMBRANE TRANSPORT Working cells must control the flow of materials This is the primary function of the plasma membrane Transport proteins also help with this task

20 Passive Transport: Diffusion Across Membranes
Molecules contain heat energy They vibrate and wander randomly

21 Diffusion is one result of the movement of molecules
Molecules tend to spread into the available space Diffusion is passive transport; no energy is needed

22 (a) Passive transport of one type of molecule
Molecules of dye Membrane Equilibrium (a) Passive transport of one type of molecule Equilibrium (b) Passive transport of two types of molecules Figure 5.11

23 Another type of passive transport is facilitated diffusion, the transport of some substances by specific transport proteins that act as selective corridors

24 Osmosis and Water Balance in Cells
Osmosis is the passive transport of water across a selectively permeable membrane Hypotonic solution Hypertonic solution Isotonic solutions Sugar molecule (solute) Selectively permeable membrane Osmosis (net movement of water) Figure 5.12

25 A hypertonic solution A hypotonic solution An isotonic solution
Has a higher concentration of solute A hypotonic solution Has a lower concentration of solute An isotonic solution Has an equal concentration of solute

26 Water Balance in Animal Cells
The survival of a cell depends on its ability to balance water uptake and loss Animal cell Normal Lysing Shriveled Plasma membrane Plant cell Flaccid (wilts) Turgid Shriveled (a) Isotonic solution (b) Hypotonic solution (c) Hypertonic solution Figure 5.13

27 Osmoregulation is the control of water balance in animals

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