Presentation on theme: "BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES. Figure 4-28 Page 76 Precipitation Transpiration from plants Runoff Surface runoff Evaporation from land Evaporation from ocean."— Presentation transcript:
Figure 4-28 Page 76 Precipitation Transpiration from plants Runoff Surface runoff Evaporation from land Evaporation from ocean Precipitation Ocean Surface runoff Groundwater movement Condensation Infiltration and Percolation Water Cycle
Water Ways water gets INTO ground: Ways water leaves ground: Precipitation Infiltration Percolation Runoff Evaporation Transpiration
Water 71% of the Earth is covered in water. Water is important for photosynthesis, digestion, and cellular respiration. Water is drawn back to the Earth by gravity. The amount of precipitation received by an area determines which plants grow there. An aquifer is a water-saturated zone of soil and rock capable of holding and storing water. 52% of water falls back to the Earth in the form of rain.
Diffusion Carbon dioxide dissolved in ocean water Marine food webs Marine sediments, including formations with fossil fuels Combustion of fossil fuels sediments death, sedimentation uplifting over geologic time sedimentation photosynthesis Cellular respiration Carbon Cycle
photosynthesis Cellular respiration Terrestrial rocks Soil water (dissolved carbon) Land food webs Atmosphere Peat, fossil fuels combustion of wood sedimentation volcanic action death, burial, compaction over geologic time leaching runoff weathering Carbon Cycle Combustion of fossil fuels
Carbon Ways carbon gets INTO ground: Ways carbon leaves ground: Dissolved in ocean water Sedimentation Weathering Death, burial, compaction Combustion of wood Combustion of fossil fuels Volcanic action Cellular respiration
Carbon Most carbon is located in the atmosphere in the gaseous form, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). CO 2 is a greenhouse gas, which means it traps heat coming from the Sun. If too much CO 2 is released in the atmosphere, temperature patterns could increase here on Earth creating a climate change. A fossil fuel is any fuel formed by natural process like decomposition (examples of this include coal, oil, and natural gas).
Nitrogen Ways nitrogen gets INTO ground: Ways nitrogen leaves ground: Lightening Decomposition Nitrification (Legume crops, “pods”) Fertilizer Leaching Denitrification Use by autotrophs Harvesting/removal of crops
Nitrogen Leaching is the loss of nutrients and other substances from soil due to water infiltration and percolation. Air on Earth is composed of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% other substances like argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. Nitrogen is essential to life because it is a key component of amino acids (building blocks of protein) and nucleic acids.
Guano Fertilizer Rocks Land Food Webs Dissolved in Ocean Water Marine Food Webs Marine Sediments weathering agriculture uptake by autotrophs death, decomposition sedimentation settling out weathering leaching, runoff Dissolved in soil, water, lakes, rivers uptake by autotrophs death, decomposition mining excretion Phosphorous Cycle uplifting over geologic time
Phosphorous Ways phosphorous gets INTO ground: Ways phosphorous leaves ground: Guano Phosphate salts Fertilizer Decomposition Weathering Uptake by autotrophs Use in food chains and webs Sedimentation/rock cycle
Phosphorous Main reservoir for phosphorous is rocks and soil. Guano is the excreted material of birds, bats, or seals, generally used as a fertilizer. Phosphorous is a key component in DNA and RNA body needs it to build these structures. It is also a key component of ATP (adenosine tri- phosphate), which are molecules that store a large portion of cellular energy.
Sulfur Ways sulfur gets INTO ground/atmosphere: Ways sulfur leaves ground: Fertilizer Volcanoes Hot springs Factory emissions Uptake by autotrophs Use in food chains and webs Sedimentation/rock cycle
Sulfur The ocean represents a major reservoir of sulfur on Earth, with large quantities in the form of dissolved sulfate and sedimentary minerals (gypsum, pyrite). Very little sulfur is present in living animals. However, it is essential because it is a part of some amino acids and involved in various chemical reactions in the body.