2Energy Flows Through Ecosystem Water—Nitrogen—Carbon—Phosphorus Are Recycled!They Move Thru A Biogeochemical Cycle:Abiotic (Non-living) Portion Of Environment (Atmosphere) Living Thingsthen Back Again
3Water Cycle Cells Contain 70-90% H20 Very Little Of Earths Available H20 Is In Living ThingsRivers / Lakes / Streams / Oceans Contain A Big %Atmosphere Contain Water = Water VaporGround Water = In Soil Or Underground In Porous RockWater Cycle = Movement Of H20 between ReservoirsEvaporationTranspirationPrecipitation
4Evaporation transpiration Adds H2O vapor to atmosphereHeat causes water to evaporate90% of evaporated water from terrestrial ecosystem passes through plants in a process called….transpiration
5Transpiration Plants take in H2O thru roots Release water & take in CO2 (carbon dioxide)Animals drink/ eat to take in H2OAnimals release it when:BreathingSweatingExcretion
6Precipitation Water leaves atmosphere Temperature & air pressure (abiotic factors) determine how much water can be heldOnce atmosphere is saturated w/vapor = snow, rain, sleet, hail or fog
8CELLULAR RESPIRATIONProcess in which autotrophs & heterotrophs use oxygen (O2) to breakdown carbs.Cells make ATP (energy) by breaking down organic compoundsA compound that results from living things & contains carbon
9HUMAN INFLUENCE ON THE CARBON CYCLE In the past 150 years CO2 in the atmosphere has risen 30% almost ½ in the last 40 yearsDue to human activityBurning fossil fuel:Remains of organismsthat have been transformedby decay, heat, & pressure Energy rich organic molecules
10Burning releases energy & CO2 Burning vegetation releases CO2Tropical rainforest destructionWith no plants CO2 is not absorbed
11Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen is needed to make proteins & nucleic acids: Organic molecule, DNA or RNA, that stores & carries important info for cell functionN2 (nitrogen gas) makes up 78% of the atmosphereN2 is however limited to ammonia (NH3)for most living things
13NITROGEN FIXATION Conversion of N2 to ammonia Certain bacteria can convert NH3 =nitrogen-fixing bacteriaLive in soil & insome roots
14Recycling Nitrogen Bodies of dead organisms contain “N” Urine & dung Decomposers break down corpses & waste of organisms give off nitrogen as ammonia = ammonificationNitrification = bacteria in soil take in ammonia & oxidize it into nitrites, NO2 & nitrates, NO3Back into the environment
16DENITRIFICATION Returning nitrogen to atmosphere Plants can absorb nitrates & ammonia from soilAnimals cannot!Animals obtain it by eating other organismsThey digest the proteins & nucleic acids
17Phosphorus CycleThe phosphorus cycle may also be referred to as the mineral cycle.Phosphorus is mainly found in water, soil, and rock.Phosphorus is essential for life.Component of DNABuilding block of our bones and teeth.
19Unlike the other cycles, phosphorus cannot be found in air in the gaseous state. The phosphorus cycle is the SLOWEST cycle.Phosphorus is most commonly found in rock formations and ocean sediments as phosphate salts.Phosphate salts that are released from rocks through weathering usually dissolve in soil water and will be absorbed by plants.
20Animals absorb phosphates by eating plants or plant-eating animals. When animals and plants die, phosphates will return to the soils or oceans again during decomposition.After that, phosphorus will end up in sediments or rock formations again, remaining there for millions of years. Eventually, phosphorus is released again through weathering and the cycle starts over.
21Human Imapcts on the Phosphorus Cycle Like nitrogen, increased use of fertilizers increases phosphorus runoff into our waterways.
22REMEMBER THIS!!! Most phosphorus is found in rocks and soil. The phosphorus cycle is the slowest cycle.Excess phosphorus contributes to eutrophication.