2 Part of Speech: NOUN Nouns name Kinds of nouns Person Place Thing AbstractionIdeaEmotionKinds of nounsCommonProper
3 Function of NOUN in Sentence Subject:Jack jumped over the candlestick.Direct object:Mary had a little lamb.Jack sent Mary an invitation.Indirect object:Jack sent Mary an invitation.Object of the preposition:
4 Noun function Noun in direct address: Appositive: Jack, will you help me?Appositive:Mr. Smith, the grocer, rang up my bill.Predicate nominative or subject complement:Mr. Smith is a grocer.Possessive:Jack’s pail has a hole in it.The boys’ game was cancelled.The men’s game was cancelled.
5 Part of Speech: PRONOUN Pronouns replace nouns: stand-in for a person, place thing or abstraction.The noun replaced by the pronoun is known as the antecedent
6 Function of PRONOUN in Sentence Pronouns have all the same functions as nouns.
7 Kinds of PRONOUNS Personal pronouns – replace noun 1st person singular: I, me, my, mine1st person plural: we, us, our2nd person : you, you, your (thou, thee, thine)3rd person singular: He,she,it; him, her, it; his, hers, its ( Note the possessive its has no apostrophe! it’s = it is )3rd person plural: They, them, theirInterrogative pronouns – ask questionsWho, whom, whose?Which, what?
8 Kinds of Pronouns Indefinite pronouns – do not require an antecedent: Singular: another, any, each, nothing, one, anyone, everyone, everybody, everything, someone, something, either, neitherPlural: few, many, some, allRelative pronouns -- create a dependent clause by introducing a noun or adjective clauseThe man, who hit my car, did not give me his license number.who, whom, whose, whoever, which, whichever, what, whatever, that
9 Kinds of Pronouns Demonstrative pronouns – point This, theseThat, thoseIntensive pronouns – emphasize preceding noun. Same form asReflexive pronouns – receive the action of the subject who is the same personSingular: Myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, oneselfPlural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves
10 Part of Speech: ADJECTIVE Adjectives describe, limit or modify a noun or pronounThe blue dress was beautiful.ArticleDefinite: theIndefinite: a, an
11 Part of Speech: ADVERBAdverbs modify or describe: verbs, adverbs, and adjectives.He ran quickly.He ran very quickly.The dress was cobalt blue.
12 Part of Speech: PREPOSITION Prepositions link a noun or pronoun to other words in the sentence creating a PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE: preposition + nounHe ran to the bus.She met me at six o’clock.
13 Function of PREPOSITION in Sentence Prepositional phrases always modify or describe something.Adjectival prepositional phrases:The stew for dinner was delicious.Adverbial prepositional phrases:The stew was made with beef, potatoes, carrots and onions.
14 Part of Speech: CONJUNCTION Conjunctions connectCoordinate conjunctionsand, or, nor, so, for, but, yetCorrelative conjunctionsboth…andeither…orneither…norNot only…but alsoWhether…orSubordinate conjunctions
15 Function of CONJUNCTIONS in Sentences Coordinate conjunctions -- connect words, phrases or clauses of equal weight.Jack and Jill went up the hill.Jack fell down, and Jill came tumbling after.Correlative conjunctions – always used in pairs also connect terms of equal weightBoth Jack and Jill went up the hill.Not only Jack did fall down, but Jill also tumbled after him.Subordinate conjunctions – create dependant clauses by introducing adverb clausesWhen Jack fell down, Jill tumbled after.
16 Common Subordinate Conjunctions AfterAlthoughAsAs ifBecauseBeforeIfOnceSinceThatUnlessUntilWhenWheneverWhereWhile
17 Part of Speech: INTERJECTION Interjections exclaim or express emotionsOuchAlasOhAll those words you curse with
18 Part of Speech: VERBVerbs express action, state of being or condition
19 Function of VERB in Sentence Main verbsAction: walk, sing, flyState of being or linking: is, feelAuxiliary (helping) verbs – combine with main verbs to create verb phrasesBe: am walking, was sungHave: had flown
20 Principal Parts of Verbs Infinitive: to be3rd person present tense: is3rd person past tense: wasPast participle: beento have, has, had, hadto walk, walks, walked, walkedto sing, sings, sang, sungto fly, flies, flew, flown
21 VERB Tenses Present: Past Future I walk The bird flies I walked The bird flewFutureI shall walkThe bird will fly
22 Perfect VERB Tenses Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect I have walkedThe bird has flownPast PerfectI had walkedThe bird had flownFuture PerfectI shall have walkedThe bird will have flown
23 Progressive VERB Tenses Present progressiveI am walkingThe bird is flyingPast progressiveI was walkingThe bird was flyingFuture progressiveI shall be walkingThe bird will be flying
24 VERB Voice Active Passive Jack threw the ball The ball was thrown by Jack
25 VERB Moods Indicative – makes a statement The cow jumped over the moon.Interrogative – asks a questionWho jumped over the moon?Imperative – gives a command or direct requestJump over the moon.Subjunctive – expresses a wish or contrary-to-fact statementIf the cow jump over the moon, I will be surprised.I wish the cow would jump over the moon.
26 VERBALS Parts of verbs that function as nouns, adjectives or adverbs Present participle: being, walking, singing, flyingThe flying bird overhead is a blue heron.Past participle: been, walked, sung, flownThe opera sung last night was Carmen.Infinitive: to be, to walk, to sing, to flyTo walk a mile every day is healthy.Gerund (always as a noun): being, walking, singing, flyingFlying is his passion