3All nouns will be either Common: general name for a person, place, thing, or an idea. They are not capitalized.OR2. Proper: the name of a particular person, place, thing, or idea. They are ALWAYS capitalized.
4All nouns will be either 3. Concrete: name something that is tangible (can be seen, touched, heard, smelled, or tasted)OR4. Abstract: names an idea, a condition, or a feeling or something that is not tangible
5All nouns will be either 5. Singular: one person, place, thing, or ideaOR6. Plural: more than one person, place, thing, or idea (generally denotes with an “s” or “es” at the end of the noun)
6Nouns MAY BE one of these: 7. Compound: noun made up of more than one word (railroad, notebook, station wagon)8. Collective: singular noun that represents a group or collection (team, pack, jury)9. Gerunds: verbals (ending in –ing) that are working as nouns in a sentence (swimming, running, thinking)
7Pronouns are EVERYWHERE! Don’t get bogged down by this…Use your brain and make connections to what you already know!
8Pronouns: take the place of a noun 1. Personal: Takes the place of common and proper nouns (must have an antecedent!)Personal PronounsSingularPlural1st Person: the person or people speaking or writingI, meMy, mineWe, usOur, ours2nd Person: the person or people being spoken or written toYouYour, yours3rd Person: the person, people, or things being spoken or written aboutShe, her,He, him, ItHis, her, hersThey, themTheir, theirs
9Personal Pronouns have two forms: 2. Subject form 3. Object from SingularPluralSubject: whom or what the sentence is about(also called Nominative)I, you, he, she, itWho, whoeverWe, you, theyObject: who or what received the actionMe, you, her, him, itWhom, whomeverUs, you, themWhom, whoever
10Other types of pronouns 4. Demonstrative Pronouns: point things out or “demonstrate” (This, That, These, Those)5. Interrogative Pronouns: used to ask questions. (What, Who, Whom, Whose, Which)6. Relative Pronouns: relate clauses to the rest of the sentence (That, Who, Whom, Whose, Which)7. Reflexive/Intensive: refer back to the subject or “intensify” (Myself, Yourself, Herself, Himself, Itself, Ourselves, Yourselves, Themselves)
118. Indefinite Pronouns refer to something that is unspecified. SingularAnybody, anyone, anythingEach, either, everybody, everyone, everythingNeither, nobody, no one, nothingOne,Somebody, someone, somethingPluralBoth,FewManyseveralSingular or PluralAll, any,Most,None,some
13Three types of verbs:Action Verbs: Express action that a noun can do! (jump, think, swim, write, watch)Linking Verbs: Do NOT express action. They connect (link) the subject to more information about the subject.Helping verbs: have no meaning on their own. They help out the main verb.
14Most common linking verbs The forms of “to be”AmAreIsWasWereBeingBeenBe
15Helping Verbs Am, Are, Is, Was, Were, Being, Been, Be Have, Has, Had Do, Does, DidShall, Should, Will, WouldMay, Might, Must, Can, Could
16What’s the difference? Adverbs: describe verbs, adjectives, or adverbs Answer: How? When? Where? Why? To what extent?Adjectives: describe nouns or pronounsAnswer: Which one? What kind? How many/much?
17Prepositions A preposition shows a relationship between two things. Work in phrase as adjectives or adverbsLocation (on, under, in)Timing (before, after, during)Direction (from, toward, to)
18Conjunctions: Combine sentences, phrases, or clauses F FORA ANDN NORB BUTO ORY YETS SO
19Interjections 1. Words that are “interjected” into a sentence to express emotion (set off with an exclamation point or comma