A noun is a person, a place, a thing, or an idea. Person: man, Barack Obama, Superman Place: city, state, Alabama, Childersburg Thing: dog, car, Monte Carlo Idea: peace, love, humility, happiness
The man went down to his car to get his wallet. I understand all of the material for the test. The dog eats his food every single day.
Singular nouns name one person, one place, one thing, or one idea. The car runs well. Plural nouns name more than one person, place, thing, or idea. The cars run well. Possessive nouns show ownership. The baby’s bottle The babies’ bottle
A concrete noun names an object that occupies space or that can be recognized by the five senses. Rock, air, book, electricity An abstract noun names an idea, a quality, or a characteristic. Peace, love, wisdom, bravery, happiness
A proper noun names a particular person, place, thing, or idea. A common noun names a general person, place, thing, or idea. CommonProper PersonactorMel Gibson PlacecityChildersburg ThingdogChamp IdeareligionChristianity
A collective noun names a group. Family Team Press Population Board Flock Herd
A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun, a group of words acting as a noun, or another pronoun. SingularPlural 1 st PersonI, meWe, us 2 nd PersonYou 3 rd PersonHe, him, she, her, it They, them
A possessive pronoun takes the place of a possessive form of a noun. SingularPlural 1 st PersonMy, mineOur, ours 2 nd PersonYour, yours 3 rd PersonHis, her, hers, its Their, theirs
A reflexive pronoun refers, or reflects back, to a noun or pronoun earlier in the sentence. An intensive pronoun adds emphasis to another noun or pronoun in the same sentence. SingularPlural 1 st PersonMyselfOurselves 2 nd PersonYourselfYourselves 3 rd PersonHimself, herself, itself Themselves
A demonstrative pronoun points out specific persons, places, things, or ideas. SingularThisThat PluralThesethose
An interrogative pronoun is used to form questions. Who? What? Whose? Which? Whom? A relative pronoun is used to begin a subordinate clause. WhoWhoeverWhichThat WhomWhomeverWhicheverWhat WhoseWhosoeverWhatever
An indefinite pronoun refers to persons, places, or things in a more general way than a noun does. See chart on page 451 for a list of these pronouns.
A verb is a word that expresses action or a state of being and is necessary to make a statement. An action verb tells what someone or something does. A linking verb links, or joins, the subject of a sentence with a word or expression that identifies or describes the subject. A verb phrase consists of a main verb and all its auxiliary, or helping, verbs.
An adjective is a word that modifies a noun or pronoun by limiting its meaning. An adjective answers the following questions: What kind? (round table) Which one? (these books) How many? (twelve disciples) How much? (many ideas)
Adjectives have three degrees of comparison: Positive: one thing The lamp is bright. Comparative: comparing two things This lamp is brighter than that lamp. Superlative: comparing three or more things This lamp is the brightest of all.
Articles are the adjectives a, an, and the. A and an are indefinite articles. The is a definite article. Proper adjectives are formed from proper nouns. English, Alabamian, Japanese, American
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb by making its meaning more specific. Adverbs answer the following questions: When? I will call tomorrow. Where? The speaker will stand here. How? Kim carefully polished the car. To what extent? We were truly sorry.
A preposition is a word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word in the sentence. Prepositions begin phrases that end with a noun or pronoun that is called the object of a preposition. See page 473 for a list of prepositions.
A conjunction is a word that joins single words or groups of words. A coordinating conjunction joins words or groups of words that have equal grammatical weight in a sentence: And, but, or, so, nor, yet
Correlative conjunctions work in pairs to join words and groups of words of equal weight in a sentence. Both…and Just as…so Either…or Neither…nor Not only…but Whether…or
A subordinating conjunction joins two clauses, or ideas, in such a way as to make one grammatically dependent on the other. These conjunctions join a dependent (subordinate) clause to an independent clause. Look on page 477 for some examples A conjunctive adverb is used to clarify the relationship between clauses of equal weight in a sentence.
An interjection is a word or phrase that expresses emotion or exclamation. Ouch! That hurts! Wow! That is amazing!