Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Gender-based Violence: Prevalence and Health Consequences C. Garcia-Moreno, Coordinator, Gender and.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Gender-based Violence: Prevalence and Health Consequences C. Garcia-Moreno, Coordinator, Gender and."— Presentation transcript:

1 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Gender-based Violence: Prevalence and Health Consequences C. Garcia-Moreno, Coordinator, Gender and Women's Health World Health Organization The Development Implications of Gender-Based Violence, World Bank Washington, D.C.

2 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health What this talk is about To provide an understanding of how common violence against women is, and how it affects the health of women and children: GBV: definitions, prevalence and patterns Health consequences

3 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Definition of violence against women any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering for women, including threats of such acts, coercion, or arbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life. -United Nations General Assembly 1993

4 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Types of gender-based violence Intimate partner violence (physical, sexual, psychological, economic) Forced sexual initiation Childhood sexual abuse Rape and other forms of sexual coercion Trafficking Rape/sexual abuse in conflict situations Acid throwing Female Genital Mutilation Killings in the name of honour Dowry deaths

5 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Prevalence of physical and/or sexual partner violence (WHO, 2004)

6 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Types of physical violence according to severity (WHO, 2004) *

7 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Overlap lifetime physical and sexual violence PERU - CAPTHAILAND - CAP 29%20%3%11%12%18% phys violsex violphys violsex viol NAMIBIA 19%11%5% physical violsexual viol

8 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Prevalence of non-partner sexual violence

9 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health (WHO, 2003) Sexual abuse in childhood is common

10 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Prevalence of forced first sex (WHO, 2004)

11 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Female adolescents forced sexual initiation, as % of those reporting having had sex. (Population- based surveys, )

12 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Global prevalence of violence against women Around the world, at least one out of three women is beaten, coerced into sex or otherwise abused by a partner during her lifetime Women are most at risk at home and from men they know, usually a family member or spouse A growing number of studies indicate that the first sexual experience is often forced, particularly for young females Rough estimates suggest that 700,000 to 2 million women and girls are trafficked across international borders every year.

13 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Violence is a risk factor affecting womens health and wellbeing

14 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health A major cause of disability and death Source: World Bank, 1993, cited in Heise et al., 1994

15 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Violence increases risk for … Fatal Outcomes –homicide –suicide –maternal deaths –AIDS related deaths Non-fatal outcomes –physical –mental –reproductive and sexual –injurious health behaviors For example: –unwanted pregnancy –chronic pain –injury –depression –alcohol/drug use –STIs/HIV –Irritable bowel –gynecological disorders

16 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Intimate partner violence is a risk factor for femicide

17 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Violence is a risk factor for health problems Compared to non-abused women, women who have been victimized have: more physical symptoms, reduced physical functioning, worse subjective health, more life-time diagnoses, higher health care utilization Severity of abuse correlates with severity of symptoms

18 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Proportion of women reporting poor health and association with reported violence % women who report their current health status as poor or very poor

19 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Violence and suicidal ideation % of women who have ever thought of suicide

20 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Violence and use of health services in Managua, Nicaragua (IDB, 1999)

21 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Prevalence of injury among women ever physically abused by a partner

22 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Women who are physically or sexually abused by their partner are more likely to report: Problems with walking Difficulties with daily activities Recent pain Problems with memory Recent dizziness Vaginal discharge Source: WHO, 2004

23 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Childhood sexual abuse Younger age at first intercourse Increased risk behaviors such as sex with many partners, unprotected sex Greater likelihood of teen pregnancy, STIs Violence contributes to adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections

24 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Percentage of women whose last pregnancy was unwanted (ever pregnant women)

25 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Violence increases womens vulnerability to HIV/AIDS VAW, particularly sexual violence, increases womens risk of HIV/AIDS directly and indirectly Violence can prevent women from accessing HIV/AIDS information, treatment and care Fear of violence is a barrier to HIV testing and disclosure Violence affects womens ability to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on themselves and their children

26 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Violence increases risk for other gynecological problems A history of sexual violence has been associated with: –vaginal bleeding –vaginal discharge –painful menstruation –sexual dysfunction –pelvic inflammatory disease –chronic pelvic pain

27 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Many women experience physical violence in pregnancy (ever pregnant women)

28 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Physical violence during pregnancy (ever pregnant women) % women who report violence during a pregnancy

29 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Violence leads to negative pregnancy outcomes increased smoking and substance use vaginal and cervical infections premature labor miscarriages/abortions bleeding during pregnancy low birth weight late entry into prenatal care

30 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Partner Violence and abortions % ever pregnant women who report 1 or more abortions *

31 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Conclusions About one in three women around the world have been beaten or sexually abused by an intimate partner Physical and sexual abuse is a major cause of ill-health and disability among women Most women do not receive the support they need

32 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health I had no one... …If I had had help I would have left my ex husband earlier. I would not have put up with him five years because I could not find anywhere to hold on to and I had no one who could tell me what I could do." Ana Cristina, a young woman from Nicaragua (in Ellsberg, 1998)

33 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Health sector response can: Help change attitudes in society Educate providers and managers to respond sensitively and prevent providers from causing harm Improve quality of care for women and children Research the epidemiology of GBV Design and evaluate prevention and intervention strategies Carry out community-based education Educate professionals in all sectors Advocate to change laws and their application Collaborate with organizations from other sectors (legal, rights, social services, etc.)

34 World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health What can we do? The health care setting is an opportunity for intervention… …and presently it is a lost opportunity (Heise, Ellsberg and Gottemuller, 1999)


Download ppt "World Health Organization Gender and Womens Health Gender-based Violence: Prevalence and Health Consequences C. Garcia-Moreno, Coordinator, Gender and."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google