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Are we there yet?: Can indicators provide a route for comparative assessment of state responses to VAW Liz Kelly Child and Woman Abuse Studies Unit London.

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Presentation on theme: "Are we there yet?: Can indicators provide a route for comparative assessment of state responses to VAW Liz Kelly Child and Woman Abuse Studies Unit London."— Presentation transcript:

1 Are we there yet?: Can indicators provide a route for comparative assessment of state responses to VAW Liz Kelly Child and Woman Abuse Studies Unit London Metropolitan University

2 Key themes u Setting the context u Defining terms u Challenges u Attempts to date u Promising directions

3 Mainstreaming Gender into Human Rights u Gender marginal in development of human rights u VAW marginal to equality in CEDAW u Feminist activism over 15 years to link HR, gender and womens equality u VAW central in dual key approach u Womens rights in mainstream HR discourse u Transform HR through recognition of state responsibility for prevention and redress with respect to gendered violations by private actors

4 Key Events u u The Vienna Declaration on Human Rights, 1993 u u UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women, 1993 u u Beijing Platform for Action u u Special Rapporteur on VAW its Causes and Consequences

5 Call for indicators u Beijing+10 u Special Rapporteur u Measuring VAW u Assessing state progress u Secretary Generals report on VAW u EU u Begun in 1998, various presidencies

6 Defining terms - VAW … the term violence against women means any act of gender-based violence that results in or is likely to result in physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life. Violence against women shall be understood to encompass but not be limited to, the following: (a) Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children in the household, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, non-spousal violence and violence related to exploitation; (b) Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring within the general community, including rape, sexual abuse, sexual harassment and intimidation at work, in educational institutions and elsewhere, trafficking in women and forced prostitution; (c) Physical, sexual and psychological violence perpetrated or condoned by the State, wherever it occurs.

7 Defining terms - indicators Robust, valid and reliable (Walby, 2005) Robust, valid and reliable (Walby, 2005) A number, proportion, percentage, rate, trend A number, proportion, percentage, rate, trend Summarise complex data Summarise complex data Link to quantitative data Link to quantitative data Unambiguous Unambiguous Basis to assess change Basis to assess change Relevant to multiple audiences Relevant to multiple audiences Available at regular intervals Available at regular intervals Comparable across social groups and states Comparable across social groups and states

8 Challenges u Common global definitions u Analytic frames for local variations u All or some forms of VAW u Number of indicators u Over/under inclusive u Starting points u Resources and capacities of states

9 Current EU recommendations u VAW (IPV) u No. of female victims u Types of victim support u Prevention measures u Sexual harassment u Percentage of employees reporting u Percentage of public/private bodies with policy u Percentage of public/private bodies with procedures to sanction perpetrators

10 Promising directions 1: Femicide index u Intimate partner violence u Men killing women u Women killing abusive men u Sexual murder u Honour killings u Women in prostitution

11 Promising directions 2: Attrition u The proportion of cases that fail to result in prosecution and conviction u It has a number of layers, and timings - with slight variations depending on legal systems u Decisions of women and girls about reporting and staying with process u Skill and decision making of police u Investigation u Prosecution u Trial process

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16 Mainstreaming: FGM/C Module in Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS+), at least 17 countries. UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) – rapid an d reliable where lack data u u Prevalence of FGM/C by age cohorts Key indicator; cohorts in five year bands u u FGM/C status of all daughters Current age of daughters as well as on the age at which they were cut u u Percentage of closed FGM/C (infibulation, sealing) and open FGM/C (excision) For women and daughters u u Performer of FGM/C. u u Support of, or opposition to FGM/C by women and men age Indictors for programming Public declaration of intent Community-based surveillance mechanisms for girls at risk Drop in prevalence

17 Other fruitful routes u Attitude surveys u Eurobarometer u Common data collection tools u UK SARCs u Shelters u Intervention Projects u Routine enquiry – current rates and health impacts u Accident and emergency u Pre and post natal

18 Not there yet, but the journey is getting interesting


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