Presentation on theme: "Preventing Violence GBV Prevention Network Against Women 16 Days of Activism 2007."— Presentation transcript:
Preventing Violence GBV Prevention Network Against Women 16 Days of Activism 2007
Facts At least 1 in every 3 women around the world has been beaten, abused, or coerced into sex during her lifetime. 1 Many women in Africa report experiencing forced sex. 30 percent in South Africa 5 30 percent in Kenya 2 24 percent in Uganda 3 25 percent in Zimbabwe 4
Background Today violence against women is recognized as a critical public health and fundamental human rights issue Activism from women’s organizations over the last decades broke the silence on violence against women.
What is Violence Against Women? The term gender-based violence is commonly used to refer to violence against women. This is violence which occurs as a result of women’s subordinate status in society. Violence against women is any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual, or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in the public or private life. (UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women,1993)
Types of violence Violence against women includes but is not limited to the following: Physical violence Hitting, slapping, punching, kicking, burning, cutting, or otherwise harming the body Sexual violence Rape (in or out of marriage), assault, attempted rape, forced prostitution, incest, coercion, female genital mutilation, sexual harassment, inappropriate/unwanted touching
Types of violence Economic Violence Overwork, denial of ownership of property, withholding or taking earnings, denial of inheritance, withholding education, unequal pay, not being allowed to work, deprivation of access to basic needs such as food and shelter. Emotional violence Verbal abuse, threats, insults, control, constant criticism, intimidation, humiliation.
Cause of Violence Against Women The cause of violence against women is women’s low status in the home and community. Women are considered less valuable than and subordinate to men. Men are seen as having power and legitimacy to control women. Using power and control over women is violence.
Contributing Factors Although alcohol and poverty are often identified as causes, they are triggers or contributing factors to violence. They are not the root cause of violence!
Violence throughout Women ’ s Life Cycle Women are vulnerable to different types of violence within their life cycle: Infancy: When they are born, girl babies in some parts of Africa are vulnerable to general neglect such as less healthcare and nutrition than male children of the same age Childhood: Young girls are faced with sexual abuse, malnutrition, FGM, overwork
Violence throughout Women ’ s Life Cycle Adolescence: Forced prostitution, coercion, transactional sex, trafficking, forced early marriage, rape and other forms of sexual abuse Reproductive age: Intimate partner violence, sexual assault by non-partner or intimate partner, sexual harassment, sex trafficking Elderly: Elder/widow abuse, loss of land and inheritance, rape
Consequences of VAW for women Physical Consequences Physical injuries - fractures, concussions, cuts, broken bones, gunshot wounds Poor health- chronic pain, gastrointestinal disorders Permanent disability Death due to homicide or suicide Sexual consequences Unwanted pregnancies Sexually transmitted infections including HIV Miscarriages, low birth weight babies 6
Emotional Consequences Depression StressPanic disorders Low self esteem Drug and/or alcohol abuse Economic Consequences Loss of economic productivity Less hours worked due to injury and illness Costs of treatment reduces family and community incomes 7 Consequences of VAW for women
Unhappy relationship with partner Emotional distance and mistrust from the children Health problems such as sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS Emotional problems, such as depression, hopelessness, lack of satisfaction Strain on the finances of the family due to expenditure on treatment, loss of productive hours Imprisonment Community resources used solving violence cases with authorities i.e. police, family or clan leaders 8 Consequences of VAW for men
Children live in fear all the time Low self esteem Problems in school e.g. poor performance Violent behavior Sensitive Withdrawal from activities Sleeping problems 9 Consequences of VAW for children
Consequences of VAW for communities Loss of productive labor force due to poor health, disability, death Increased crime Lack of harmony within the community Women excluded from leadership and political processes Alcohol and drug abuse Stress on health and social services Underdevelopment of community
Why should we prevent VAW? The right to life The right to equality The right to liberty and security of person The right to equal protection under the law The right to be free from all forms of discrimination The right not to be subjected to torture, or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. 10 Women’s Human Rights
Reduce serious consequences to women’s physical and mental health Reduce the transmission of STDs including HIV/AIDS Why should we prevent VAW? Health reasons
Economic reasons Reduce the burden on healthcare systems Reduce the strain on family resources and national resources as well Foster economic growth by having more productive hours, victims of violence have less hours spent in production Why should we prevent VAW?
What can you do to prevent violence against women?
As a woman, what can you do? Talk to family members about the benefits of a healthy relationship Support other women experiencing violence Foster in boys and young men a respect for girls and young women Treat your boy and girl children equally Be open, honest and direct with young people when they ask about sex and relationships Seek support when you are experiencing violence
As a man, what can you do? Commit to non-violence in your own relationships Talk to other men about the benefits of a healthy relationship Plan and enjoy fun things to do together with your family Share family responsibilities with your partner Respect your partner as you wish to be respected Treat your boy and girl children equally Foster in boys and young men a respect for girls and young women
As a young person, what can you do? Commit to non-violence in all your relationships Talk to your friends about healthy relationships Offer support to friends experiencing violence Respect each other boys and girls - as equals Respect that no means no Learn how to solve problems by talking not fighting Join or create youth groups to talk about issues important to you
As a community member, what can you do? Believe women when they tell you they are experiencing violence Speak out when you know violence is happening Model healthy relationships in your family and work place Encourage others to share family responsibilities Preach in churches and mosques about how happy families are non-violent families Advocate for zero-tolerance policies for sexual violence in your schools As police, health workers or other professionals, be supportive and encouraging to women who report violence
16 Days of Activism International campaign against violence against women Unites organizations and individuals across the world Takes place from November 25 th to December 10 th each year. This 16-day period includes the following important days: November 25 th : International Day against Violence against Women December 1 st : World AIDS Day December 10 th : International Human Rights Day
We’re committed to preventing violence against women!...what about you? Speak out. Reach out. Stand out.
1.Heise L., Ellsberg M. and Gottenmoeller M. (1999). “Ending Violence Against Women,” Population Reports, Series L, No. 11, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Populations Information Program 2.Johnston T. (2002). “Gender Series: The Sexual Abuse of Kenyan Women and Girls,A Briefing Book,” Population Communication Africa, Nairobi, Kenya 3.Koenig M., Lutalo T., Zhao F., Nalugoda F., Kiwanuka N., Wabwire-Mangen F., Kigozi G. et al. (2004). “Coercive Sex in Rural Uganda: Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors,” Science & Medicine 4.The Word Health Organization (2002),” Gender and HIV/AIDS,’’ Geneva, Switzerland 5. Wood K., Maforah F., and Jewkes R. (1996). “Sex, Violence and Constructions of Love Among Xhosa Adolescents: Putting Violence on the Sexuality Education Agenda,” CERSA-Women's Health Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa 6. Ellsberg M, Heise L. (2005) “Researching Violence Against Women: A Practical Guide for Researchers and Activists.” Washington DC, United States: World Health Organization, PATH 7. Ellsberg M, Heise L. (2005) “Researching Violence Against Women: A Practical Guide for Researchers and Activists.” Washington DC, United States: World Health Organization, PATH 8. Michau L, Naker D. (2003) “Rethinking Domestic Violence: A Training Process for Community Activists,” Kampala, Uganda: Raising Voices. 9. Michau L, Naker D. (2003) “Rethinking Domestic Violence: A Training Process for Community Activists,” Kampala, Uganda: Raising Voices. 10. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) End notes