Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Mid-19c European Nationalism.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Mid-19c European Nationalism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mid-19c European Nationalism

2 The Crimean War [ ] Russia [claimed protectorship over the Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire] Ottoman Empire Great Britain France Piedmont-Sardinia

3 The Crimean War [ ]

4 Treaty of Paris [1856] No Russian or Ottoman naval forces on the Black Sea. All the major powers agreed to respect the political integrity of the Ottoman Empire.

5 The Second Republic (1848-1852)
Louis Napoleon –(in exile for attempting to overthrow Louis Philippe) - nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte Brought to power by the (MC) Middle Class that feared radicalism – OR his connection, historically to his uncle – “Longing for the ‘good old days’?”

6 Program for France- Napoleonic Ideas & Elimination of Poverty
(Louis) Napoleon III Program for France- Napoleonic Ideas & Elimination of Poverty

7 The Second Empire ( ) Parliament – The National Assembly(NA) – stirred up class conflict to block Louis Napoleon’s reforms The NA was aligned with the Catholic Church to thwart “radical reform” Louis Napoleon Dismisses the NA December 1851 – illegally under the 2nd Republic’s Const., conspires with the army to seize power – declares himself “President for 10 years” – “Emperor for Life”

8 2nd Empire Cont’d Economy – new investments in Banks, RR’s – construction, public works projects, the rebuilding of Paris Employment ^(up), Wages ^(up) – workers give right to form unions and to strike for better wages and conditions. Regulated credit unions (NOT like American ones) and pawn shops to prevent them from taking advantage of the working poor. * Political - Encouraged the election of a new National Assembly that better represented ALL Frenchmen. And supported the creation of opposition political parties to run against his candidates and HIMSELF when he was up for the re-election as President. By the 1860’s advocated greater Liberal Reform – gave the NA more power. 1864 – participated in placing Maximilian I an Austrian/Hapsburg Archduke as Emperor of Mexico – failed (Monroe Doctrine?) and Max was executed in 1867 along with Emprs. Carlotta Overwhelmingly Re-elected President and Emperor for Life

9 War, Siege, and the Commune (1870-1871)
The Loss to Prussia meant the end of the 2nd Empire and a gap before the 3rd Republic More later…..

10 Napoleon & Bismarck as friends




14 Napoleon III Surrenders to Bismarck

15 Napoleon III as Bismarck's prisoner

16 A French cartoon entitled Entrée du Charlemagne moderne à Paris, depicting the German chancellor Bismarck, with Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany riding a pig (Napoleon) down the Champs Elysées in Paris, France.

17 Liberal Paris vs. the Conservative Provinces
Radicals, military personnel, students, revolutionaries.. Lived off of Zoo animals and supplies brought in by air balloon Ended with the brutal attack by the French Regular Army

18 France: Paris Commune March 28 – May 28, 1871

19 Hotel de Ville



22 Almanach Francais - the execution of members of the commune

23 The German princes swear allegiance to Wilhelm I
The German princes swear allegiance to Wilhelm I. Bismarck is standing on the steps.


25 The Third Republic (1871-1940) Conservative – Middle Class/Bourgeoisie
Gustave Caillebotte's Paris Street; Rainy Day is an oil on canvas (83-1/2 x 108-3/4 inches), which is owned by The Art Institute of Chicago. The Third Republic ( ) Conservative – Middle Class/Bourgeoisie Gustave Caillebotte's The Pont Du Europe

26 Adolphe Thiers ( )


28 Leon Gambetta

29 The Third Republic cont’d
A long period of stability – 1871 – 1940 with conservative values Free compulsory education – secular - for boys and girls with emphasize on nationalism. Employment of married teachers to model family life – and encourage increased birth rate The Dreyfus affair will destroy the church’s influence in France on politics and education.

30 Alfred Dreyfus The church, Conservatives, the Military, and the House of Esterhazy Conspire to convict Dreyfus…real guilty party – Esterhazy.

31 Marie Edmé Patrice de MacMahon

32 Italian Nationalist Leaders
King Victor Emmanuel II Giuseppi Garibaldi [The “Sword”] Giuseppi Mazzini [The “Heart”] Count Cavour [The “Head”]

33 Italian Unification A “settled” unification
Supported by Napoleon III – then not. Growing MC and Industrialization in the North led to 1861 movement.

34 King Victor (Vittorio) Emmanuel II –King of Sardinia
King Charles Albert steped aside for his son after the defeat in 1849 by the Austrians (Hapsburgs).

35 Giuseppe Mazzini – Risorgimento – The Resurgence pressed again for Unification

36 Count Camillo Benso di Cavour

37 Pope Pius IX: The “Spoiler”?

38 Giuseppe Mazzini Pope PiusIX

39 Giuseppe Garibaldi “Red Shirts: impresa dei Mille” – (enterprise of one thousand) –free the South from the Bourbons

40 Garibaldi

41 Garibaldi & Mazzini

42 Garibaldi Defends Rome Against the French, (April 30, 1849)

43 Italian unification movement: Risorgimento [“Resurgence”]
Sardinia-Piedmont: The “Magnet” Italian unification movement: Risorgimento [“Resurgence”]

44 Step #1: Carbonari Insurrections: 1820-1821

45 Step #2: Piedmont-Sardinia Sends Troops to the Crimea
What does Piedmont-Sardinia get in return?

46 Step #3: Cavour & Napoleon III Meet at Plombières, 1858
What “deals” are made here?

47 Step #4: Austro-Sardinian War, 1859

48 Step #5: Austro-Prussian War, 1866
Austria loses control of Venetia. Venetia is annexed to Italy.

49 Step #6: Garibaldi & His “Red Shirts” Unite with Cavour

50 Garibaldi & King Victor Emmanuel II

51 Step #7: French Troops Leave Rome, 1870
Italy is united!

52 A Unified Peninsula! A contemporary British cartoon, entitled "Right Leg in the Boot at Last," shows Garibaldi helping Victor Emmanuel put on the Italian boot.

53 Victor Emmanuel Monument


55 What problems still remain for Italy?
The Kingdom of Italy: 1871 What problems still remain for Italy?

Download ppt "Mid-19c European Nationalism."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google