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The Crimean War [1854- 1856] Russia [claimed protectorship over the Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire] Ottoman Empire Great Britain France Piedmont-Sardinia.

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Presentation on theme: "The Crimean War [1854- 1856] Russia [claimed protectorship over the Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire] Ottoman Empire Great Britain France Piedmont-Sardinia."— Presentation transcript:



3 The Crimean War [ ] Russia [claimed protectorship over the Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire] Ottoman Empire Great Britain France Piedmont-Sardinia

4 The Crimean War [ ]

5 Treaty of Paris [1856] No Russian or Ottoman naval forces on the Black Sea. All the major powers agreed to respect the political integrity of the Ottoman Empire.

6 The Second Republic ( ) Louis Napoleon –(in exile for attempting to overthrow Louis Philippe) - nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte Brought to power by the (MC) Middle Class that feared radicalism – OR his connection, historically to his uncle – Longing for the good old days?

7 (Louis) Napoleon III Program for France- Napoleonic Ideas & Elimination of Poverty

8 The Second Empire ( ) Parliament – The National Assembly(NA) – stirred up class conflict to block Louis Napoleons reforms The NA was aligned with the Catholic Church to thwart radical reform Louis Napoleon Dismisses the NA December 1851 – illegally under the 2 nd Republics Const., conspires with the army to seize power – declares himself President for 10 years – Emperor for Life

9 2 nd Empire Contd Economy – new investments in Banks, RRs – construction, public works projects, the rebuilding of Paris Employment ^(up), Wages ^(up) – workers give right to form unions and to strike for better wages and conditions. Regulated credit unions (NOT like American ones) and pawn shops to prevent them from taking advantage of the working poor. *Political - Encouraged the election of a new National Assembly that better represented ALL Frenchmen. And supported the creation of opposition political parties to run against his candidates and HIMSELF when he was up for the re-election as President. By the 1860s advocated greater Liberal Reform – gave the NA more power – participated in placing Maximilian I an Austrian/Hapsburg Archduke as Emperor of Mexico – failed (Monroe Doctrine?) and Max was executed in 1867 along with Emprs. Carlotta Overwhelmingly Re-elected President and Emperor for Life

10 War, Siege, and the Commune ( ) The Loss to Prussia meant the end of the 2 nd Empire and a gap before the 3 rd Republic More later…..

11 Napoleon & Bismarck as friends




15 Napoleon III Surrenders to Bismarck

16 Napoleon III as Bismarck's prisoner

17 A French cartoon entitled Entrée du Charlemagne moderne à Paris, depicting the German chancellor Bismarck, with Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany riding a pig (Napoleon) down the Champs Elysées in Paris, France.

18 Liberal Paris vs. the Conservative Provinces Radicals, military personnel, students, revolutionaries.. Lived off of Zoo animals and supplies brought in by air balloon Ended with the brutal attack by the French Regular Army

19 France: Paris Commune March 28 – May 28, 1871

20 Hotel de Ville



23 Almanach Francais - the execution of members of the commune

24 The German princes swear allegiance to Wilhelm I. Bismarck is standing on the steps.


26 The Third Republic ( ) Conservative – Middle Class/Bourgeoisie Gustave Caillebotte's Paris Street; Rainy Day is an oil on canvas (83-1/2 x 108-3/4 inches), which is owned by The Art Institute of Chicago.Chicago Gustave Caillebotte's The Pont Du Europe

27 Adolphe Thiers ( )


29 Leon Gambetta

30 The Third Republic contd A long period of stability – 1871 – 1940 with conservative values Free compulsory education – secular - for boys and girls with emphasize on nationalism. Employment of married teachers to model family life – and encourage increased birth rate The Dreyfus affair will destroy the churchs influence in France on politics and education.

31 Alfred Dreyfus The church, Conservatives, the Military, and the House of Esterhazy Conspire to convict Dreyfus…real guilty party – Esterhazy.

32 Marie Edmé Patrice de MacMahon

33 Count Cavour [The Head] Giuseppi Garibaldi [The Sword] King Victor Emmanuel II Giuseppi Mazzini [The Heart] Italian Nationalist Leaders

34 Italian Unification A settled unification Supported by Napoleon III – then not. Growing MC and Industrialization in the North led to 1861 movement.

35 King Victor (Vittorio) Emmanuel II –King of Sardinia King Charles Albert steped aside for his son after the defeat in 1849 by the Austrians (Hapsburgs).

36 Giuseppe Mazzini – Risorgimento – The Resurgence pressed again for Unification

37 Count Camillo Benso di Cavour

38 Pope Pius IX: The Spoiler?

39 Giuseppe Mazzini Pope PiusIX

40 Giuseppe Garibaldi Red Shirts: impresa dei Mille – (enterprise of one thousand) –free the South from the Bourbons

41 Garibaldi

42 Garibaldi & Mazzini

43 Garibaldi Defends Rome Against the French, (April 30, 1849)

44 Sardinia-Piedmont: The Magnet Italian unification movement: Risorgimento [Resurgence]

45 Step #1: Carbonari Insurrections: Coalmen.

46 Step #2: Piedmont-Sardinia Sends Troops to the Crimea What does Piedmont-Sardinia get in return?

47 Step #3: Cavour & Napoleon III Meet at Plombières, 1858 What deals are made here?

48 Step #4: Austro-Sardinian War, 1859

49 Step #5: Austro-Prussian War, 1866 Austria loses control of Venetia. Venetia is annexed to Italy.

50 Step #6: Garibaldi & His Red Shirts Unite with Cavour

51 Garibaldi & King Victor Emmanuel II

52 Step #7: French Troops Leave Rome, 1870 Italy is united!

53 A Unified Peninsula! A contemporary British cartoon, entitled "Right Leg in the Boot at Last," shows Garibaldi helping Victor Emmanuel put on the Italian boot.

54 Victor Emmanuel Monument


56 The Kingdom of Italy: 1871 What problems still remain for Italy?

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