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Italian & German Unification

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Presentation on theme: "Italian & German Unification"— Presentation transcript:

1 Italian & German Unification

2 Italy ( )

3 Antiquity: Roman Empire
1. Why wasn’t Italy united before 1850? Antiquity: Roman Empire

4 Middle Ages: competing city-states
1. Why wasn’t Italy united before 1850? Middle Ages: competing city-states

5 Congress of Vienna (1815): reorganized provinces
1. Why wasn’t Italy united before 1850? Congress of Vienna (1815): reorganized provinces

6 2. 1815-1848: 3 basic approaches to unification
Goal: centralized democratic republic universal male suffrage Advocate: Giuseppe Mazzini FAILED (too radical) Mazzini, writer/philosopher/politician

7 2. 1815-1848: 3 basic approaches to unification
Goal: federation pres. = progressive pope Advocate: Vincenzo Gioberti FAILED (Pope Pius IX opposed) Gioberti, Catholic priest

8 2. 1815-1848: 3 basic approaches to unification
Goal: union under leadership of Sardinia-Piedmont Advocate: ??? WINNER!!! Victor Emmanuel, King of Sardinia-Piedmont ( )

9 3. Key Events Early 1860: unification of N Italy Late 1860:
unification of N & S 1866: Venice added 1870: Rome added

10 4a. The Soul: Mazzini ( ) The Duties of Man: “O my brothers, love your Country! Our country is our Home, the house that God has given us, placing therein a numerous family that loves us, and whom we love…” The Idealist Patriot

11 4b. The Brains: Cavour (1810-1861)
Unification of Northern Italy 1850s: strengthen Sardinia : Quest to get Lombardy-Venetia from Austria! ally w/ France goad Austria into war Franco-Sardinian victory! France pulls support … separate peace w/ Austria: Italy gets Lombardy only Cavour resigns Noble Statesman in Sardinian Government,

12 4b. The Brains: Cavour (1810-1861)
Unification of Northern Italy : Central Italy to the rescue – demand unification! 1860: Cavour returns & France re-pledges support N. Italy unified (w/o Venetia)

13 4c. The Sword: Garibaldi (1807-1882)
Unification of North & South Red Shirts 1860: conquer Sicily plan to invade Papal States  stopped by Cavour Cavour orders plebiscite  S. states vote to join N Military Leader

14 5. What did the new, unified Italy look like?
Government: Divisions between: parliamentary monarchy (Victor Emmanuel) limited suffrage social classes (rich/poor) regions (N/S)

15 Germany (1871)

16 1a. Entities: Holy Roman Empire
loose affiliation of ≈300 German states “First Reich”

17 1b. Entities: German Confederation
loose affiliation of 39 German states replaced HRE purpose: military defense ineffective federal diet met at Frankfurt under Austrian pres.

18 1c. Entities: Schleswig-Holstein
mostly German Holstein = member of German Confederation ruled by Denmark 1848 & 1864: WARS! Denmark vs. Germany over control of S-H

19 1d. Entities: Zollverein
German customs union founded in 1834 to ↑ economy Prussia = leader included all German states but Austria b/c Austria did not want to ↓ tariffs

20 2a. People: Frederick William IV
King of Prussia (r ) 1848: new liberal constitution accepts Prussian-led German unification 1849: tries to be elected emperor of unified Germany 1850: Austria & Russia successfully oppose Prussia’s unification plans

21 2b. People: William I King of Prussia (r. 1861-1888)
1st German Emperor (r )

22 2c. People: Otto von Bismarck
1st German Chancellor ( ) … “Iron Chancellor” Minister-President of Prussia ( ) background: Prussian, Junker, conservative led German unification

23 3. 1st unification attempt: 1848 Revolution
Driving forces: Liberalism: make absolutist Prussia a liberal constitutional monarchy Nationalism: unite Germany Events: Constituent Assembly (Berlin) – liberal constitution for Prussia National Assembly (Frankfurt) – constitution for unified Germany Outcome: FAILURE!!!! Fred Will IV makes conservative constitution for Prussia Austria opposes unification Frederick William I, the “Soldiers’ King” (r )

24 4. Obstacles to German Unification
Denmark Austria Conservatism vs. Liberalism in Prussia

25 4a. Denmark Denmark vs. Prussia & Austria over control of S-H
First Schleswig War (1848) = inconclusive How obstacle overcome: Second Schleswig War (1864) = Denmark defeated

26 4b. Austria Austria vs. Prussia over control of German affairs
Austria opposes Prussia’s 1848 unification attempt Austria refuses Zollverein membership Austro-Prussian War (1866) How obstacle overcome: Prussian victory in Austro-Prussian War

27 4c. Liberalism vs. Conservatism in Prussia
Liberals: Prussian parliament Conservatives: William I & Bismarck Events: 1862: parliament rejects William’s budget 1862: William appoints Bismarck chief minister : Bismarck rules w/o parliament (“blood & iron”) 1866: indemnity bill How obstacle overcome: liberals & Bismarck align in common pursuit of unification

28 5a. Unification: Austro-Prussian War (1866)
Cause: Prussia wants to control northern German Confederation war to drive Austria out of German affairs Outcome: Prussian victory Austria withdraws ***creation of North German Confederation*** North German Confederation

29 5b. Unification: Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)
Cause: drive south German states to unify with the north France = common enemy Outcome: Prussian victory ***German unification achieved***  German nationalism harsh peace for France German Empire / “Second Reich” ( )

30 6. What did the new, unified Germany look like?
25 states parliamentary monarchy strong national government: emperor (Kaiser) chancellor 2-house parliament Reichstag = lower house (universal male suffrage)

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