Antiquity: Roman Empire 1. Why wasn’t Italy united before 1850?
Middle Ages: competing city-states 1. Why wasn’t Italy united before 1850?
Congress of Vienna (1815): reorganized provinces 1. Why wasn’t Italy united before 1850?
2. 1815-1848: 3 basic approaches to unification Approach #1: Goal: centralized democratic republic universal male suffrage Advocate: Giuseppe Mazzini FAILED (too radical) Mazzini, writer/philosopher/politician
2. 1815-1848: 3 basic approaches to unification Approach #2: Goal: federation pres. = progressive pope Advocate: Vincenzo Gioberti FAILED ( Pope Pius IX opposed) Gioberti, Catholic priest
2. 1815-1848: 3 basic approaches to unification Approach #3: Goal: union under leadership of Sardinia-Piedmont Advocate: ??? WINNER!!! Victor Emmanuel, King of Sardinia-Piedmont (1849-1861)
3. Key Events Early 1860: unification of N Italy Late 1860: unification of N & S 1866: Venice added 1870: Rome added
4a. The Soul: Mazzini (1805-1872) The Duties of Man: “O my brothers, love your Country! Our country is our Home, the house that God has given us, placing therein a numerous family that loves us, and whom we love…” The Idealist Patriot
4b. The Brains: Cavour (1810-1861) Unification of Northern Italy 1850s: strengthen Sardinia 1858-1859: Quest to get Lombardy- Venetia from Austria! 1. ally w/ France 2. goad Austria into war 3. Franco-Sardinian victory! 4. France pulls support … separate peace w/ Austria: Italy gets Lombardy only 5. Cavour resigns Noble Statesman in Sardinian Government, 1850-1861
4b. The Brains: Cavour (1810-1861) Unification of Northern Italy 1858-1859: Central Italy to the rescue – demand unification! 1860: 1. Cavour returns & France re-pledges support 2. N. Italy unified (w/o Venetia)
4c. The Sword: Garibaldi (1807-1882) Unification of North & South Red Shirts 1860: 1. conquer Sicily 2. plan to invade Papal States stopped by Cavour 3. Cavour orders plebiscite S. states vote to join N Military Leader
Government: Divisions between: parliamentary monarchy ( Victor Emmanuel ) limited suffrage social classes (rich/poor) regions (N/S) 5. What did the new, unified Italy look like?
1a. Entities: Holy Roman Empire loose affiliation of ≈300 German states 800-1806 “First Reich”
1b. Entities: German Confederation loose affiliation of 39 German states 1815-1866 replaced HRE purpose: military defense ineffective federal diet met at Frankfurt under Austrian pres.
1c. Entities: Schleswig-Holstein Schleswig-Holstein: mostly German Holstein = member of German Confederation ruled by Denmark 1848 & 1864: WARS! Denmark vs. Germany over control of S-H
1d. Entities: Zollverein German customs union founded in 1834 to ↑ economy Prussia = leader included all German states but Austria b/c Austria did not want to ↓ tariffs
2a. People: Frederick William IV King of Prussia (r. 1840-1861) 1848: new liberal constitution accepts Prussian-led German unification 1849: tries to be elected emperor of unified Germany 1850: Austria & Russia successfully oppose Prussia’s unification plans
2b. People: William I King of Prussia (r. 1861-1888) 1 st German Emperor (r. 1871-1888)
2c. People: Otto von Bismarck 1 st German Chancellor (1871-1890) … “Iron Chancellor” Minister-President of Prussia (1862-1873) background: Prussian, Junker, conservative led German unification
3. 1 st unification attempt: 1848 Revolution Driving forces: 1. Liberalism: make absolutist Prussia a liberal constitutional monarchy 2. Nationalism: unite Germany Events: 1. Constituent Assembly (Berlin) – liberal constitution for Prussia 2. National Assembly (Frankfurt) – constitution for unified Germany Outcome: FAILURE!!!! 1. Fred Will IV makes conservative constitution for Prussia 2. Austria opposes unification
4. Obstacles to German Unification A. Denmark B. Austria C. Conservatism vs. Liberalism in Prussia
4a. Denmark Denmark vs. Prussia & Austria over control of S-H First Schleswig War (1848) = inconclusive How obstacle overcome: Second Schleswig War (1864) = Denmark defeated
4b. Austria Austria vs. Prussia over control of German affairs Austria opposes Prussia’s 1848 unification attempt Austria refuses Zollverein membership Austro-Prussian War (1866) How obstacle overcome: Prussian victory in Austro-Prussian War
4c. Liberalism vs. Conservatism in Prussia Liberals: Prussian parliament Conservatives: William I & Bismarck Events: 1862: parliament rejects William’s budget 1862: William appoints Bismarck chief minister 1862-1866: Bismarck rules w/o parliament (“blood & iron”) 1866: indemnity bill How obstacle overcome: liberals & Bismarck align in common pursuit of unification
5a. Unification: Austro-Prussian War (1866) Cause: Prussia wants to control northern German Confederation war to drive Austria out of German affairs Outcome: Prussian victory Austria withdraws ***creation of North German Confederation*** North German Confederation
5b. Unification: Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) Cause: drive south German states to unify with the north France = common enemy Outcome: Prussian victory ***German unification achieved*** German nationalism harsh peace for France German Empire / “Second Reich” (1871-1918)
6. What did the new, unified Germany look like? 25 states parliamentary monarchy strong national government: emperor (Kaiser) chancellor 2-house parliament Reichstag = lower house (universal male suffrage)