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Refresher on Nationalism

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1 Refresher on Nationalism

2 Congress of Vienna In 1815, the Congress of Vienna restores the Old Order Absolute monarchs back Re-draws the map, different ethnicity groups are thrown together into one territory

3 In France Napoleon is Emperor until 1815
Louis XVIII is King (monarchy restored) until 1824 (with the exception of Napoleon’s 100 Days) Charles X rules (younger brother of Louis XVIII) His rule ends with the July Revolution

4 July Revolution The people overthrow King Charles X (disagree with his policies – he was ruling more like an absolute monarch) The people elect Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orleans – this will be known as the July Monarchy Louis-Philippe rules from

5 Revolution of 1848 (in France)
People are unhappy, riots In Feb Louis-Philippe abdicated, fearful of the unrest Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte elected President He declared himself President for life and Emperor Napoleon III First President of France, last monarch

6 Revolutions of 1848 Spread throughout Europe – France, Germany, Poland, Italy, etc. Known in some countries as Spring of Nations Comparisons being drawn to today’s Arab Spring The demand: more participation and democracy The end result: with a few small exceptions, the Revs of 1848 were unsuccessful Reactionary forces won out

7 Unification Movements
In Italy and Germany, revolutions of 1848 included unification movements C.o.V. left Spain, Austria and France in charge of Italy The German Confederation was dominated by Austro-Hungarian Empire and Prussia

8 Italy – The Unification Players
Giuseppe “the soul” Mazzini Started nationalist group Young Italy in 1832 Camillo “the brain” di Cavour Il Risorgimento With France, declared war on Austria and won – kicked Austria (except Venetia) out of Italy Giuseppe “the sword” Garibaldi Joined Young Italy, exiled, came back to fight off Austria Unites Southern Italy First King of United Italy - Victor “the stash” Emmanuel II Italy backed Prussia, against Austria (Austria loses) War provides opportunity to kick French troops and Austrian troops out of Venice and Papl States

9 Germany – The Unification players
Frederick Wilhelm IV – King of Prussia Promises change, doesn’t do it Bismarck = driving force of unification He is not a liberal He supports the King Thinks it is the job of King & Prussia to unify Germany

10 Germany: Bismarck and realpolitik
Bismarck’s philosophy of realpolitik will unify Germany He practiced realpolitik or “politics of reality” He was not an idealist “The great problems of the day will be settled by…blood and iron”

11 Wars = Unification Austro-Prussian War:
Italy sides w/ Prussia, gives Venice to Italy, kicks Austria out of Germany Northern Germany is unified Franco-Prussian War: The south joins the north to go to war against France and Napoleon III Kick France out to unify Germany Prussia wins In 1871 peace treaty declares unified Germany

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