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Unification of Italy The Risorgimento Mr. D.. Obstacles to Italian Unity The Congress of Vienna (1815) had used the “balance of powers” principle Austria.

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Presentation on theme: "Unification of Italy The Risorgimento Mr. D.. Obstacles to Italian Unity The Congress of Vienna (1815) had used the “balance of powers” principle Austria."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unification of Italy The Risorgimento Mr. D.

2 Obstacles to Italian Unity The Congress of Vienna (1815) had used the “balance of powers” principle Austria had taken Lombardy and Venice The Papal States divided Italy in two There were many independent kingdoms and monarchs appointed by the Congress (Hapsburgs)

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4 The Second Italian War of Unification (1859) Map Map In the 1850’s The Kingdom of Sardinia became the leader in the movement for Italian unification In the 1850’s The Kingdom of Sardinia became the leader in the movement for Italian unification Count Camillo di Cavour became the prime minister of Sardinia in 1852 Count Camillo di Cavour became the prime minister of Sardinia in 1852 Worked for Victor Emanuel II Realizing that defeating the Austrians was impossible without allies he won the favor of the Napoleon III by assisting France in the Crimean War in Realizing that defeating the Austrians was impossible without allies he won the favor of the Napoleon III by assisting France in the Crimean War in 1855.

5 Developments Map Map In July of 1858 Cavour and Napoleon III reached an agreement on Italian unification France would assist Sardinia in return for the return of 2 provinces (Nice and Savoy) France would assist Sardinia in return for the return of 2 provinces (Nice and Savoy) The Austrians were defeated—with much bloodshed—by the combined French and Sardinian forces

6 Italian Gains Map Map Having achieved his goals (and fearing a strong Italian state) Napoleon III signed a separate armistice with the Austrians without Sardinian consent However, Sardinia—still under Cavour— gained Lombardy and the Duchies of Parma and Magenta, and was freed from Austrian control, but Austria still controlled Venetia

7 Garibaldi’s Unification of Italy Map Map Despite large territorial gains, Italian nationalist and military hero Garibaldi was still fanatically dedicated to the idea of a united Italy By 1860, all of Italy had voted to join Sardinia except the Papal States and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Garibaldi sailed to the island of Sicily and narrowly defeated 15,000 troops with his 3,000 “Red Shirts” He then landed in Naples and began to march towards Rome

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9 Cavour and the King’s Unification of Italy Map Map King Victor Emanuel II and Prime Minister met Garibaldi near Naples (before the Papal States) Why were they afraid of Garibaldi at this point? Why were they afraid of Garibaldi at this point? The Papal States and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies voted to join Sardinia—all of Italy was united except for the Austrians’ Venetia in the north, and the immediate area surrounding Rome 1861: The Kingdom of Italy is created with Vittorio Emanuel II as the first king, and Cavour as the first prime minister

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11 The Third War of Italian Unification (1866) Map Map The Austro-Prussian War/The Seven Weeks’ War Italy sided with Prussia against Austria Italy gained Venetia 1870: France withdrew from Rome; Italian forces capture the city and declare Rome the new capital


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