15 A.P.I. Ratings SA Straight mineral oil no additives. SB 1930s motor oil with some detergent. SC 1950s oil more additives. SD 1960s enter multi-viscosity oils. SE 1970s emission controls make heat is problem. SF 1980s improves fuel economy. SG Late 1980s wider viscosity ranges. SH 1990s great stuff. SJ Late 1990s SL200?s SM Current
16 Selecting Motor Oil Pick proper viscosity as recommended by manufacturer. Pick proper service rating as recommended by the manufacturer.
17 Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF) Has red color to identify it from motor oil. Several kinds: Dexron/Mercon Type FA
18 Gear Lube Used in manual transmissions and differentials on rear drive cars. Heavy viscosity 90W. Looks like motor oil but smells real bad!
19 Chassis Grease Conventional type of petroleum grease. Grease steering and suspension parts.
20 Other Types of Grease Lithium grease or white lube. Used on mis. parts.
21 Other Lubricants WD-40 is a light oil with graphite. Liquid wrench is a penetrating oil for dry and rusted bolts.
22 Non Petroleum Lubricants Silicone spray is for rubber and plastic parts. Doesnt work well on metal. Brake cleaner is like dry cleaning fluid. Cleans off grease and evaporates in seconds.
23 Other Useful Fluids Carburetor choke and throttle body cleaner. Contains toluene. Starting fluid. Contains ether.
25 Oil Contamination Blow-by gases add raw gasoline and water to the oil causing deterioration. Excessive heat can cause thermal breakdown. Excessive cranking can dilute oil with gasoline. Cooling gasket leaks will ruin oil causing sludge.
26 Things That Make Oil Deteriorate Faster Short distance driving. (which is most trips) Extensive idling. Cold weather operation. Trailer towing. Excessive heavy loads Dirty and dusty conditions.
27 Proper Oil Disposal Waste motor oil is a controlled waste. Be sure to properly dispose of. Oil filters too!
28 Changing Oil Find the drain plug and remove it. Catch the waste oil and dispose of it properly. Dont forget to reinstall the plug.
29 Drain Plugs Be careful never to strip out drain plugs. Extremely bad form.
30 Changing the Filter Remove the filter with an oil filter wrench. Dispose of the filter properly. Install the new filter hand tight.
31 Filter Problems Always match the old to the new oil filter. The gasket and thread must be the same. If you make a mistake you can pump 5 quarts of oil on the floor in seconds!
32 Chassis Lubrication & Fluid Checks If the the vehicle is equipped with zerk fittings, grease those parts using the power grease gun. Find and clean the fittings first, then inject the grease. One kick from the gun is plenty. Under the car make the following checks: Gear lube in the differential on rear drive cars. Check tire air pressure. Be sure to find the proper inflation pressure. Check manual transmission fluid if the car is a stick shift.
33 Refilling Motor Oil Find crankcase capacity in one of the following references: Owners manual? Service manual. Repair manual. Computerized specification system.
34 Under Hood Checks Motor oil level Power steering fluid Coolant level Brake fluid Automatic transmission fluid. (The engine must be running) Good technicians also do these things: Check belt and hose condition. Inspect the battery terminals. Lubricate hood and door hinges. Look for anything unusual under the hood.
35 Changing Transmission Fluid Remove transmission oil pan. This is tricky so be careful you dont get an oil bath. Catch oil in motor oil drain pan with the tranny fluid basin. Dispose of properly. Change the filter, clean the pan, and reinstall the pan with a new gasket.
36 Replacing Filter and Pan Gasket Buy a filter kit which gives you a new filter and gasket. Treat used tranny filters as you would an oil filter.