15A.P.I. Ratings SA Straight mineral oil no additives. SB ’s motor oil with some detergent.SC ’s oil more additives.SD ’s enter multi-viscosity oils.SE 1970’s emission controls make heat is problem.SF 1980’s improves fuel economy.SG Late 1980’s wider viscosity ranges.SH ’s great stuff.SJ Late 1990’sSL 200?’sSM Current
16Selecting Motor OilPick proper viscosity as recommended by manufacturer.Pick proper service rating as recommended by the manufacturer.
17Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF) Has red color to identify it from motor oil.Several kinds:Dexron/MerconType FA
18Gear LubeUsed in manual transmissions and differentials on rear drive cars.Heavy viscosity 90W.Looks like motor oil but smells real bad!
19Chassis Grease Conventional type of petroleum grease. Grease steering and suspension parts.
20Other Types of Grease Lithium grease or white lube. Used on mis. parts.
21Other Lubricants WD-40 is a light oil with graphite. Liquid wrench is a penetrating oil for dry and rusted bolts.
22Non Petroleum Lubricants Silicone spray is for rubber and plastic parts. Doesn’t work well on metal.Brake cleaner is like dry cleaning fluid. Cleans off grease and evaporates in seconds.
23Other Useful FluidsCarburetor choke and throttle body cleaner. Contains toluene.Starting fluid. Contains ether.
25Oil ContaminationBlow-by gases add raw gasoline and water to the oil causing deterioration.Excessive heat can cause thermal breakdown.Excessive cranking can dilute oil with gasoline.Cooling gasket leaks will ruin oil causing sludge.
26Things That Make Oil Deteriorate Faster Short distance driving. (which is most trips)Extensive idling.Cold weather operation.Trailer towing.Excessive heavy loadsDirty and dusty conditions.
27Proper Oil Disposal Waste motor oil is a controlled waste. Be sure to properly dispose of.Oil filters too!
28Changing Oil Find the drain plug and remove it. Catch the waste oil and dispose of it properly.Don’t forget to reinstall the plug.
29Drain Plugs Be careful never to strip out drain plugs. Extremely bad form.
30Changing the Filter Remove the filter with an oil filter wrench. Dispose of the filter properly.Install the new filter hand tight.
31Filter ProblemsAlways match the old to the new oil filter. The gasket and thread must be the same. If you make a mistake you can pump 5 quarts of oil on the floor in seconds!
32Chassis Lubrication & Fluid Checks If the the vehicle is equipped with zerk fittings, grease those parts using the power grease gun.Find and clean the fittings first, then inject the grease. One kick from the gun is plenty.Under the car make the following checks:Gear lube in the differential on rear drive cars.Check tire air pressure. Be sure to find the proper inflation pressure.Check manual transmission fluid if the car is a stick shift.
33Refilling Motor OilFind crankcase capacity in one of the following references:Owners manual?Service manual.Repair manual.Computerized specification system.
34Under Hood Checks Motor oil level Power steering fluid Coolant level Brake fluidAutomatic transmission fluid. (The engine must be running)Good technicians also do these things:Check belt and hose condition.Inspect the battery terminals.Lubricate hood and door hinges.Look for anything unusual under the hood.
35Changing Transmission Fluid Remove transmission oil pan. This is tricky so be careful you don’t get an oil bath.Catch oil in motor oil drain pan with the tranny fluid basin. Dispose of properly.Change the filter, clean the pan, and reinstall the pan with a new gasket.
36Replacing Filter and Pan Gasket Buy a filter kit which gives you a new filter and gasket.Treat used tranny filtersas you would an oil filter.