2 Flow chart 1 3 E Ecosystems Terrestrial Aquatic Biomes 2 4 Organization of EcosystemSpeciesPopulationCommunitiesEcosystemEnergy Cycles Through EcosystemWater CycleCarbon cycleNitrogen Cycle13EEcosystemsTerrestrialAquaticBiomes24Energy Flow Through EcosystemFood WebFood ChainsTrophic LevelsRelationship Among OrganismsCommensalismMutualismParasitismsymbiosis
3 Organization of Ecosystem SpeciesPopulationCommunitiesEcosystem
4 3.1 EcosystemsFactors such as food, water, shelter, and space affect populations in an ecosystem.
5 What is an ecosystem?All living & non-living things that interact in an environment
6 Biotic is living things in an ecosystem What are Ecosystems Factors?Biotic is living things in an ecosystemAbiotic is nonliving things in an ecosystem.
7 What are Some Types of Ecosystems? Terrestrial EcosystemsTerrestrial ecosystems are ecosystems on land.They can be as big as a continent, or as small as an island!They make up about 28% of the entire World’s ecosystems.
8 Examples of Terrestrial Ecosystems ForestsDesertsGrasslandsForest:Desert:Grassland:
9 Ecosystems that are in the water Aquatic EcosystemsEcosystems that are in the waterThere are TWO types of aquatic ecosystems.FreshwaterSaltwater.Picture retrieved from:Aquatic information retrieved from:And:
10 Saltwater Ecosystems Saltwater ecosystems have very salty water. They make up the vast majority of the Earth’s ecosystems.Some examples of saltwater ecosystems are oceans and coral reefs.Water picture retrieved from:Coral reef picture retrieved from:
14 Organisms in an ecosystem need… foodshelterAIRWater
15 Organisms in an ecosystem need… foodshelterAIRLIMITING FACTORSSpaceWater
16 What are the rules of an ecosystem? Everything is connected to everything else.2. Everything must go somewhere in an environment
17 Organisms live together in many different levels and classifications.
18 Levels of Organization in Ecosystems Species: An organism that creates a viable, fertile offspring through the process of reproduction.
19 Levels of Organization in Ecosystems Population: A group of organisms of the same species living at the same place at the same time.
20 Levels of Organization in Ecosystems Community: Different populations of organisms interacting with each other in the same habitat.
21 Levels of Organization in Ecosystems Habitat: The place and conditions in which a population and biological community exist.
22 Organization PyramidBiosphere Ecosystems Communities Population Species Organisms Organ System Organs Tissues Cells Organelles Molecules Atoms
23 Importance of the habitat Organisms need to satisfy all of their needs for life within their habitats.They compete forFoodWaterShelterSpace
24 Importance of the habitat Competition- interaction between individuals or populations for available resources. This usually has a negative effect for all organisms.
25 Importance of the habitat NicheAn organism’s role, or “job” within the habitat and ecosystem.This includes…..- The specific area an organism inhabits- The role or function of an organism or species in an ecosystem.- The interaction of all biotic and abiotic factors relating to it.
26 Energy Flow Through Ecosystem Food WebFood ChainsTrophic Levels
27 What is energy?The ability to do work.All living things need energy to survive.
28 Why is energy important to an ecosystem? All organisms require energy for growth, maintenance, reproduction, locomotion, etc..For all organisms there must be: A source of energy2. A loss of usable energy
29 What is the ultimate source of all energy in any ecosystem? The SUNWithout it, the most basic forms of life would not exist
31 What are producers? Lowest part of the cycle Also called autotrophs Organisms that make their own food by capturing energy from the sun.Lowest part of the cycleAlso called autotrophsEX: Plants, greenalgae, some bacteria
32 How do some organisms make their own food? Photosynthesis is the process that organisms use to make their food from the sun’s light.
33 What are consumers?Consumers are organisms that feed on other organisms.Cannot acquire energy from the sunEnergy flows from sun to organism to organismAlso called heterotrophsDifferent types of heterotrophs:Herbivores - VegetationOmnivores - Meat and VegetationCarnivores – MeatScavengers – meat and decaying meatDetritivores - Decaying organic matter
34 What is a primary consumer? A primary consumer is an organism that eats the producer. Like a rabbit that eats a carrot.Also called Herbivores – only eats plants
35 What are secondary consumers? Organisms that feed on primary consumers are secondary consumers. Also called Carnivores Ex. A wolf that eats a rabbit
36 Consumers can be further divided into groups: quaternary consumer (top)tertiary consumersecondary consumerPrimary consumerThe last consumer in a chain, which is not usually eaten by any other consumer, is often referred to as the top consumer.
37 What are decomposers?organisms that feed on dead organism, break them down into simple nutrients or fertilizers.Also called DetritivoresEX: fungi and bacteria
45 How does energy move through an ecosystem? Energy moves from one organisms to another when it is eaten.
46 What are Trophic Levels Each step in this transfer of energy is know as a trophic levelThe main trophic levels are producers, consumers, and decomposers
47 What is the Food Chains ?The energy flow from one trophic level to the otherA food chain is simple and directIt involves one organism at each trophic levelPrimary Consumers – eat producersSecondary Consumers – eat the primary consumersTertiary Consumer-eat the secondary consumerDecomposers – bacteria and fungi that break down dead organisms and recycle the material back into the environment
48 What is a Food Web Most organisms eat more than JUST one organism When more organism are involved it is known as a FOOD WEBFood webs are more complex and involve lots of organisms
49 Transfer of EnergyWhen a zebra eats the grass, it does not obtain all of the energy the grass has (much of it is not eaten)When a lion eats a zebra, it does not get all of the energy from the zebra (much of it is lost as heat)
50 Law of Thermodynamics2nd Law of Thermodynamics: energy is not transferred from one object/organism to the next with 100% efficiency.Some of the energy is lost to the environment.Energy Pyramid shows the amounts of energy that moves from one level to the next
51 Energy FlowThe ecological pyramid shows the relative amounts of energy or matter.Producers make up the first levelConsumers make up the second, third and higher
52 Energy FlowOnly about 10% of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to organisms at the next trophic level.The other 90% is used by the organism to carry out its life processes or it is lost to the environmentBiomass is the total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level.
61 Ecological PyramidAn ecological pyramid shows the relationship between consumers and producers at different trophic levels in an ecosystemShows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained at each trophic levelThe Pyramid shows which level has the most energy and the highest number of organisms
62 Ecological Pyramid only 10% of energy is passed on through consumption
63 Ecological Pyramid Which level has the most energy? Which level has the most organisms?Which level has the least organisms?Which level has the least energy?