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Chapter 4 Child Development Table of Contents Exit.

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1 Chapter 4 Child Development Table of Contents Exit

2 Heredity Developmental Psychology: The study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities Heredity (Nature): Transmission of physical and psychological characteristics from parents to their children through genes DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid): Molecular structure, shaped like a double helix that contains coded genetic information Table of Contents Exit

3 Genes Genes: Specific areas on a strand of DNA that carry hereditary information Dominant: The gene’s feature will appear each time the gene is present Recessive: The gene’s feature will appear only if it is paired with another recessive gene Table of Contents Exit

4 © Biophoto Associates/Science-Source/Photo Researchers
Fig. 3.1 This image, made with a scanning electron microscope, shows several pairs of human chromosomes. (Colors are artificial.) Table of Contents Exit

5 Fig. 3.2 (Top left) Linked molecules (organic bases) make up the “rungs” on DNA’s twisted “molecular ladder.” The order of these molecules serves as a code for genetic information. The code provides a genetic blueprint that is unique for each individual (except identical twins). The drawing shows only a small section of a DNA strand. An entire strand of DNA is composed of billions of smaller molecules. (Bottom left) The nucleus of each cell in the body contains chromosomes made up of tightly wound coils of DNA. (Don’t be misled by the drawing: Chromosomes are microscopic in size and the chemical molecules that make up DNA are even smaller.) Table of Contents Exit

6 Fig Gene patterns for children of brown-eyed parents, where each parent has one brown-eye gene and one blue-eye gene. Since the brown-eye gene is dominant, 1 child in 4 will be blue-eyed. Thus, there is a significant chance that two brown-eyed parents will have a blue-eyed child. Table of Contents Exit

7 Temperament and Environment
Temperament: The physical “core” of personality; includes sensitivity, irritability, distractibility, and typical mood Easy Children: 40 %; relaxed and agreeable Difficult Children: 10 %; moody, intense, easily angered Slow-to-Warm-Up Children: 15 %; restrained, unexpressive, shy Remaining Children: Do not fit into any specific category Table of Contents Exit

8 Environment Environment (“Nurture”): All external conditions that affect a person and perhaps his/her development Sensitive Periods: A period of increased sensitivity to environmental influences; also, a time when certain events must occur for normal development to take place Congenital Problem: A problem or defect that occurs during prenatal development; “birth defect” Genetic Disorder: Problem caused by inherited characteristics from parents; e.g., cystic fibrosis Table of Contents Exit

9 Teratogens Anything capable of causing birth defects (e.g., narcotics, radiation, cigarette smoke, lead, and cocaine) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): Caused by repeated heavy alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Infants: Have low birth weight, a small head, body defects, and facial malformations Lack Cupid’s Bow, the bow-shaped portion of the upper lip (look in the mirror to see) Table of Contents Exit

10 How to Minimize Prenatal Risks
Maintain good nutrition during pregnancy Learn relaxation and stress reduction techniques to ease transition to motherhood Avoid teratogens and other harmful substances Get adequate exercise during pregnancy Obtain general education about pregnancy and childbirth Table of Contents Exit

11 Childbirth Medicated Birth: Traditional; mother is assisted by physician and given drugs for pain Prepared Childbirth: Parents learn specific behavioral techniques to manage pain and facilitate labor. Lamaze method is most famous Table of Contents Exit

12 Deprivation and Enrichment
Deprivation: Lack of normal stimulation, nutrition, comfort, or love Enrichment: When an environment is deliberately made more complex and intellectually stimulating and emotionally supportive Table of Contents Exit

13 CNN - Miscarriage Depression
Table of Contents Exit

14 The Mozart Effect: Real or Nonsense?
Rauscher & Shaw (1998) claimed that after college students listened to Mozart they scored higher on a spatial reasoning test Original experiment done with adults; tells us nothing about infants What effect would listening to other styles of music have? Most researchers unable to duplicate the effect Conclusion: Those who listened to Mozart were just more alert or in a better mood Table of Contents Exit

15 Newborns (Neonates) and Their Reflexes
Grasping Reflex: If an object is placed in the infant’s palm, she’ll grasp it automatically (all reflexes are automatic responses; i.e., they come from nature, not nurture) Rooting Reflex: Lightly touch the infant’s cheek and he’ll turn toward the object and attempt to nurse; helps infant find nipple or food Sucking Reflex: Touch an object or nipple to the infant’s mouth and she’ll make rhythmic sucking movements Moro Reflex: If a baby’s position is abruptly changed or if he is startled by a loud noise, he will make a hugging motion Table of Contents Exit

16 Fig. 3.5 Infant imitation. In the top row of photos, Andrew Meltzoff makes facial gestures at an infant. The bottom row records the infant’s responses. Videotapes of Meltzoff and of tested infants helped ensure objectivity. (Photos courtesy of Andrew N. Meltzoff.) Table of Contents Exit

17 Fig. 3.7 Motor development. Most infants follow an orderly pattern of motor development. Although the order in which children progress is similar, there are large individual differences in the ages at which each ability appears. The ages listed are averages for American children. It is not unusual for many of the skills to appear 1 or 2 months earlier than average or several months later (Frankenberg & Dodds, 1967; Harris & Liebert, 1991). Parents should not be alarmed if a child’s behavior differs some from the average. Table of Contents Exit

18 Maturation Definition: Physical growth and development of the body, brain, and nervous system Increased muscular control occurs in patterns; order of maturation is almost universal Cephalocaudal: From head to toe Proximodistal: From center of the body to the extremities Table of Contents Exit

19 © Michael Newman/PhotoEdit
Fig. 3.8 Psychologist Carolyn Rovee-Collier has shown that babies as young as 3 months old can learn to control their movements. In her experiments, babies lie on their backs under a colorful crib mobile. A ribbon is tied around the baby’s ankle and connected to the mobile. Whenever babies spontaneously kick their legs, the mobile jiggles and rattles. Within a few minutes, infants learn to kick faster. Their reward for kicking is a chance to see the mobile move (Hayne & Rovee-Collier, 1995). Table of Contents Exit

20 Emotional and Social Development
Basic Emotions: Anger, fear, joy; appear to be unlearned Social Smile: Smiling elicited by social stimuli; not exclusive to seeing parents Self-Awareness: Awareness of oneself as a person; can be tested by having infants look in a mirror and see if they recognize themselves Social Referencing: Observing other people to get information or guidance Table of Contents Exit

21 Fig. 3.9 The traditional view of infancy holds that emotions are rapidly differentiated from an initial capacity for excitement. (After K.M.B. Bridges, From “Emotional Development in Early Infancy.” Reprinted by permission of the Society for Research in Child Development.) Table of Contents Exit

22 Fig Infants display many of the same emotional expressions as adults do. Carroll Izard believes such expressions show that distinct emotions appear within the first months of life. Other theorists argue that specific emotions come into focus more gradually, as an infant’s nervous system matures. Either way, parents can expect to see a full range of basic emotions by the end of a baby’s first year. Over the first 2 years, children become increasingly active in initiating emotional exchanges with parents (Grolnick, Cosgrove, & Bridges, 1996). Table of Contents Exit

23 Imprinting (Lorenz) Definition: Rapid, relatively permanent type of learning that occurs during a limited time period early in life Lorenz (an ethologist) studied natural behavior patterns of animals Hatched baby geese in an incubator; when geese were born, first moving object they saw was Lorenz They followed him around and acted as though he were their mother! Table of Contents Exit

24 Mary Ainsworth and Attachment
Separation Anxiety: Crying and signs of fear when a child is left alone or is with a stranger; generally appears around 8-12 months Quality of Attachment (Ainsworth) Secure: Stable and positive emotional bond Insecure-Avoidant: Anxious emotional bond; tendency to avoid reunion with parent or caregiver Insecure-Ambivalent: Anxious emotional bond; desire to be with parent or caregiver and some resistance to being reunited with Mom Contact Comfort (Harlow): Pleasant and reassuring feeling babies get from touching something warm and soft, especially their mother Table of Contents Exit

25 Fig In the United States, about two thirds of all children from middle-class families are securely attached. About 1 child in 3 is insecurely attached. (Percentages are approximate. From Kaplan, 1998.) Table of Contents Exit

26 Fig. 3. 12 An infant monkey clings to a cloth-covered surrogate mother
Fig An infant monkey clings to a cloth-covered surrogate mother. Baby monkeys becomes attached to the cloth “contact-comfort” mother but not to a similar wire mother. This is true even when the wire mother provides food. Contact comfort may also underlie the tendency of children to become attached to inanimate objects, such as blankets or stuffed toys. However, a study of 2- to 3-year-old “blanket-attached” children found that they were no more insecure than others (Passman, 1987). (So, maybe Linus is okay after all.) Table of Contents Exit

27 Play and Social Skills Solitary Play: When a child plays alone even when with other children Cooperative Play: When two or more children must coordinate their actions Affectional Needs: Needs for love and affection Table of Contents Exit

28 Optimal Caregiving Proactive Maternal Influences: A mother’s warm, educational interactions with her child Goodness of Fit (Chess & Thomas): Degree to which parents and child have compatible temperaments Paternal Influences: Sum of all effects a father has on his child Table of Contents Exit

29 Parenting Styles (Baumrind, 1991)
Authoritarian Parents: Enforce rigid rules and demand strict obedience to authority. Children tend to be self-absorbed as adults and have higher rates of drug abuse and violence Overly Permissive: Give little guidance. Allow too much freedom, or don’t hold children accountable for their actions. Children tend to be dependent and immature and frequently misbehave Authoritative: Provide firm and consistent guidance combined with love and affection. Children tend to be competent, self-controlled, independent, and assertive Table of Contents Exit

30 CNN – Brain Conference Table of Contents Exit

31 Types of Child Discipline
Power Assertion: Using physical punishment or a show of force, e.g., removing toys or privileges Withdrawal of Love: Withholding affection Management Techniques: Combine praise, recognition, approval, rules, and reasoning Table of Contents Exit

32 Spanking Gershoff (2002): Parents should minimize or avoid entirely
No long-term damage if backed up by supportive parenting Frequent spanking leads to increased aggression and to an increase in behavioral problems Table of Contents Exit

33 Language Acquisition Cooing: Repetition of vowel sounds by infants; typically starts at 6-8 weeks Babbling: Repetition of meaningless language sounds (e.g., babababa); uses consonants B, D, M, and G; starts at 7 months Single-Word Stage: The child says one word at a time Telegraphic Speech: Two word sentences that communicate a single idea (e.g., Want cookie) Table of Contents Exit

34 Fig. 3. 14 Mother-infant and father-infant interactions
Fig Mother-infant and father-infant interactions. These graphs show what occurred on routine days in a sample of 72 American homes. The graph on the left records the total amount of contact parents had with their babies, including such a actions as taking to, touching, hugging, or smiling a the infant. The graph on the right shows the amount of care-giving (diapering, washing, feeding, and so forth)done by each parent. Note that in both cases mother-infant interactions greatly exceed father-infant interactions. (Adapted from Belsky et al., 1984) Table of Contents Exit

35 Noam Chomsky and the Roots of Language
Biological Disposition: Presumed readiness of ALL humans to learn certain skills such as how to use language Chomsky: Language patterns are inborn Parentese (Motherese): Pattern of speech used when talking to infants Marked by raised voice; short, simple sentences and repetition Table of Contents Exit

36 Jean Piaget and Cognitive Development
Piaget believed that all children passed through a set series of stages during their cognitive development; like Freud, he was a Stage Theorist Transformations: Mentally changing the shape or form of a substance; children younger than 6 or 7 cannot do this Assimilation: Application of existing mental patterns to new situations Accommodation: Existing ideas are changed to accommodate new information or experiences Table of Contents Exit

37 Jean Piaget and the First Stage of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor (0-2 Years): All sensory input and motor responses are coordinated; most intellectual development here is nonverbal Object Permanence: Concept that objects still exist when they are out of sight Table of Contents Exit

38 Jean Piaget and the Second Stage of Cognitive Development
Preoperational Stage (2-7 Years): Children begin to use language and think symbolically, BUT their thinking is still intuitive and egocentric Intuitive: Makes little use of reasoning and logic Egocentric: Child is unable to accommodate viewpoints of others Table of Contents Exit

39 Jean Piaget and the Third Stage of Cognitive Development
Concrete Operational Stage (7-11Years): Children become able to use concepts of time, space, volume, and number BUT in ways that remain simplified and concrete, not abstract Conservation: Mass, weight, and volume remain unchanged when the shape of objects changes Reversibility of Thought: Relationships involving equality or identity can be reversed Table of Contents Exit

40 Fig Children under age 7 intuitively assume that a volume of liquid increases when it is poured from a short, wide container into a taller, thinner one. This boy thinks the tall container holds more than the short one. Actually each holds the same amount of liquid. Children make such judgments based on the height of the liquid, not its volume. Table of Contents Exit

41 Jean Piaget and the Last Stage of Cognitive Development
Formal Operations Stage (11 Years and Up): Thinking now includes abstract, theoretical, and hypothetical ideas Abstract Ideas: Concepts and examples removed from specific examples and concrete situations Hypothetical Possibilities: Suppositions, guesses, or projections Table of Contents Exit

42 Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
Children’s cognitive development is heavily influenced by social and cultural factors Children’s thinking develops through dialogues with more capable people Zone of Proximal Development: Range of tasks a child cannot master alone even though they are close to having the necessary mental skills; they need guidance in order to complete the task Scaffolding: Framework or temporary support. Adults help children learn how to think by scaffolding, or supporting, their attempts to solve a problem or to discover principles Scaffolding must be responsive to a child’s needs Table of Contents Exit

43 Effective Parenting Have stable rules of conduct (consistency)
Show mutual respect, love, encouragement, and shared enjoyment Have effective communication I-Message: Tells children the effect their behavior had on you (Use this) You-Message: Threats, name-calling, accusing, bossing, criticizing, or lecturing (Avoid this) Table of Contents Exit

44 Consequences Natural Consequences: Effects that naturally follow a particular behavior; intrinsic effects Logical Consequences: Rational and reasonable effects Table of Contents Exit

45 How Has New Knowledge About Genetics Affected Parenthood?
Artificial Insemination: Medically engineered conception. Sperm cells from an anonymous donor are used to impregnate a woman Test-Tube Babies: Occurs through in vitro fertilization Fertilization of an ovum outside a woman’s body Used for infertile couples Child will share both mother’s and father’s genes Human Genome Project: A map of the entire set of human genes Genetic Counseling: Examines family history of each future parent and thus calculates risk of a genetic disorder Table of Contents Exit

46 Fig.3.20 During in vitro fertilization, ova from the woman or a donor are mixed with sperm from the man or donor. In the advanced techniques shown here, a sperm cell is placed inside an ovum. If both the egg and sperm are donated, both nominal parents are genetically unrelated to the “test-tube” baby. Table of Contents Exit

47 How Has New Knowledge About Genetics Affected Parenthood? (cont.)
Amniocentesis: Sample of amniotic fluid is taken from mother’s womb; can identify fetal sex and detect some genetic defects Usually done at 15th week of pregnancy Can detect Down’s Syndrome Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS): Performed between 6th and 8th week of pregnancy Small piece of placenta is taken for analysis Table of Contents Exit

48 The Future Eugenics: Selective breeding for desirable characteristics
Cloning: Production of an entire organism from a single cell Not likely to happen for many years The Rael’s were a hoax Table of Contents Exit

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