Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Chapter 3: Child Development.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Chapter 3: Child Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Chapter 3: Child Development

2 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Heredity and Genes Developmental Psychology: The study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities from conception to death Heredity (Nature): Transmission of physical and psychological characteristics from parents to their children through genes DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid): Molecular structure, shaped like a double helix that contains coded genetic information

3 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Genes Specific areas on a strand of DNA that carry hereditary information –Dominant: The gene’s feature will appear each time the gene is present –Recessive: The gene’s feature will appear only if it is paired with another recessive gene Polygenic: Characteristics that are controlled by many genes working in combination

4 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Figure 3.2

5 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Figure 3.3

6 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Table 3.1

7 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Temperament Temperament: The physical “core” of personality –Includes sensitivity, irritability, distractibility, and mood

8 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Newborns’ Temperaments Easy Children: 40 %; relaxed and agreeable Difficult Children: 10 %; moody, intense, easily angered Slow-to-Warm-Up Children: 15 %; restrained, unexpressive, shy Remaining Children: Do not fit into any specific category (Chess & Thomas, 1968)

9 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Environment (“Nurture”) All external conditions that affect development, especially the effects of learning Sensitive Periods: A period of increased sensitivity to environmental influences; also, a time when certain events must occur for normal development to take place

10 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Developmental Problems Congenital Problems: Problems or defects that occur during prenatal development; “birth defect” Genetic Disorder: Problem caused by inherited characteristics from parents or defects in genes

11 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Teratogens Anything capable of causing birth defects (e.g., narcotics, radiation, cigarette smoke, lead, and cocaine) in a developing fetus –Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): Caused by repeated heavy alcohol consumption during pregnancy

12 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Deprivation and Enrichment Deprivation: Lack of normal stimulation, nutrition, comfort, or love during development Enrichment: When environments are deliberately made more complex, intellectually stimulating, and emotionally supportive during development

13 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 The Mozart Effect: Fact or Fiction? Rauscher & Shaw (1998) claimed that after college students listened to Mozart they scored higher on a spatial reasoning test Original experiment done with adults; tells us nothing about children

14 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 The Mozart Effect: Hypothesis and Conclusion What effect would listening to other styles of music have? Most researchers unable to duplicate the effect Conclusion: Those who listened to Mozart were just more alert or in a better mood

15 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Developmental Level An individual’s current state of physical, emotional, and intellectual development

16 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Newborns (Neonates) and Their Reflexes Grasping Reflex: If an object is placed in the infant’s palm, she’ll grasp it automatically (all reflexes are automatic responses; i.e., they come from nature, not nurture) Rooting Reflex: Lightly touch the infant’s cheek and he’ll turn toward the object and attempt to nurse; helps infant find nipple or food

17 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 More Neonatal Reflexes Sucking Reflex: Touch an object or nipple to the infant’s mouth and she’ll make rhythmic sucking movements Moro Reflex: If a baby’s position is abruptly changed or if he is startled by a loud noise, he will make a hugging motion

18 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Figure 3.7

19 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Maturation Physical growth and development of the body, brain, and nervous system Increased muscular control occurs in patterns –Cephalocaudal: From head to toe –Proximodistal: From center of the body to the extremities

20 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Readiness Exists when maturation has advanced enough to allow rapid acquisition of a particular skill

21 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Basic Emotions Anger, fear, joy –Take time to develop –Appear to be innate

22 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Emotional and Social Development Social Smile: Smiling elicited by social stimuli; not exclusive to seeing parents; occurs at 2-3 months Social Development: Development of self- awareness, attachment to parents or caregivers, and relationships with other children and adults

23 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 More on Social Development Self-Awareness: Awareness of oneself as a person; can be tested by having infants look in a mirror and see if they recognize themselves; occurs at about 15 months Social Referencing: Observing other people in social situations to get information or guidance

24 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Figure 3.10

25 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Separation Anxiety Crying and signs of fear when a child is left alone or is with a stranger; generally appears around 8-12 months

26 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Mary Ainsworth and Attachment Quality of Attachment –Secure: Stable and positive emotional bond –Insecure-Avoidant: Tendency to avoid reunion with parent or caregiver; anxious or emotional bond –Insecure-Ambivalent: Desire to be with parent or caregiver and some resistance to being reunited; also anxious emotional bond

27 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Figure 3.11

28 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Play and Social Skills Solitary Play: When a child plays alone even when with other children Cooperative Play: When two or more children must coordinate their actions

29 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Optimal Caregiving Proactive Educational Influences: A parent’s warm, educational interactions with her child Goodness of Fit (Chess & Thomas, 1986): Degree to which parents and child have compatible temperaments Paternal Influences: Sum of all effects a father has on his child

30 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Figure 3.13

31 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Parenting Styles (Baumrind, 1991) Authoritarian Parents: Enforce rigid rules and demand strict obedience to authority; children tend to be emotionally stiff and lacking in curiosity Overly Permissive: Give little guidance, allow too much freedom, or don’t hold children accountable for their actions; children tend to be dependent and immature and frequently misbehave

32 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Parenting Styles (cont.) Authoritative: Provide firm and consistent guidance combined with love and affection; children tend to be competent, self-controlled, independent, and assertive

33 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Types of Child Discipline Power Assertion: Using physical punishment or a show of force Withdrawal of Love: Withholding affection Management Techniques: Combine praise, recognition, approval, rules, and reasoning

34 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Side Effects of Child Discipline Power Assertion: Children tend to be aggressive, violent, defiant, not spontaneous, and hate their parents Withdrawal of Love: Children tend to be self- disciplined, anxious, insecure, and dependent on adults

35 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Spanking No long-term damage if backed up by supportive parenting –Frequent spanking leads to increased aggression and more problem behaviors

36 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Language Development Cooing: Spontaneous repetition of vowel sounds by infants; at 6-8 months Babbling: Repetition of meaningless language sounds (e.g., babababa); 7 months Single-Word Stage: The child says one word at a time Telegraphic Speech: Two word sentences that communicate a single idea (e.g., “Want yogurt”)

37 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Figure 3.14

38 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Noam Chomsky and the Roots of Language Biological Disposition: Presumed hereditary readiness of ALL humans to learn certain skills such as how to use language –Chomsky: Language patterns are inborn Parentese (Motherese): Pattern of speech used when talking to infants –Marked by raised voice; short, simple sentences, repetition, and exaggerated voice inflections

39 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Jean Piaget and Cognitive Development Piaget believed that all children pass through a set series of stages during their cognitive development; like Freud, he was a Stage Theorist Transformations: Mentally changing the shape or form of a substance; children younger than 6 or 7 cannot do this

40 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 More Piagetian Concepts Assimilation: Application of existing mental patterns to new situations Accommodation: Existing ideas are changed to accommodate new information or experiences

41 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Jean Piaget: Sensorimotor Stage Sensorimotor (0-2 Years): All sensory input and motor responses are coordinated; most intellectual development here is nonverbal –Object Permanence: Concept that objects still exist when they are out of sight

42 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Absence of Object Permanence

43 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Presence of Object Permanence

44 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Jean Piaget: Preoperational Stage Preoperational Stage (2-7 Years): Children begin to use language and think symbolically, BUT their thinking is still intuitive and egocentric –Intuitive: Makes little use of reasoning and logic –Egocentric Thought: Thought that is unable to accommodate viewpoints of others

45 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Preoperational Conservation of Quantity

46 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Jean Piaget: Concrete Operational Stage Concrete Operational Stage (7-11Years): Children become able to use concepts of time, space, volume, and number BUT in ways that remain simplified and concrete, not abstract –Conservation: Mass, weight, and volume remain unchanged when the shape or appearance of objects changes –Reversibility of Thought: Relationships involving equality or identity can be reversed

47 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Concrete Conservation of Quantity

48 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Concrete Abstract Reasoning

49 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Jean Piaget: Formal Operations Formal Operations Stage (11 Years and Up): Thinking now includes abstract, theoretical, and hypothetical ideas –Abstract Ideas: Concepts and examples removed from specific examples and concrete situations –Hypothetical Possibilities: Suppositions, guesses, or projections

50 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Formal Abstract Reasoning

51 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory Children’s cognitive development is heavily influenced by social and cultural factors A child’s thinking develops through dialogues with more capable persons Zone of Proximal Development: Range of tasks a child cannot master alone even though they are close to having the necessary mental skills; they need guidance from a more capable partner in order to complete the task

52 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Vygotsky’s Scaffolding Adjusting instruction so it is responsive to a beginner’s behavior and so it supports the beginner’s efforts to understand a problem or gain a mental skill

53 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Effective Parenting Have stable rules of conduct (consistency) Show mutual respect, love, encouragement, and shared enjoyment Have effective communication –I-Message: Tells children the effect their behavior had on you (Use this) –You-Message: Threats, name-calling, accusing, bossing, criticizing, or lecturing (Avoid this)

54 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Consequences Natural Consequences: Effects that naturally follow a particular behavior Logical Consequences: Rational and reasonable effects


Download ppt "Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 3 Chapter 3: Child Development."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google