3I. The Study of Ecologyecology: scientific study of the interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environmentbiotic factor- any living part of an environment, ex: prokaryotes, protists, animals, fungi, and plants. abiotic factor: nonliving physical or chemical condition in an environment.Ecologists study the relationships among biotic and abiotic factors at five increasingly broad levels: organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and the biosphere.
4The Study of EcologyD. individual organism: the smallest unit of ecological study, Ex: blue sweetlip fish in a coral reef environment.E. population: a group of individual organisms of the same species living in a particular area, Ex: A group of sweetlip fish in the reef environmentF. community: all the organisms living in an area, Ex: All living things in a coral reef including fish, coral animals, microscopic algae, and all other organisms living in and around the reef.
5The Study of EcologyG. ecosystem: community of living things plus the nonliving features of the environment that support them, Ex: Coral reef’s living and nonliving inhabitantsH. biosphere: all the parts of the planet that are inhabited by living things; sum of all Earth's ecosystems, broadest category,1. Closed system where nothing enters orleaves except light and heat.
6II. Patchiness of the Biosphere A. The biosphere is not spread out uniformly around the planet.B. All these environmental variations are due mainly to differences in abiotic factors such as temperature, soil type, and the availability of water and light.C. habitat: an organism's specific environment, with characteristic abiotic and biotic factors
7III. Key Abiotic Factors A. Sunlight - the sun provides light and warmth, and is the energy source for almost all ecosystems on Earth. The sunlight powers photosynthesis in land and in the water (only on top layer).B. Water – All organisms contain water (human contain 70%), water can dissolve gases and solutes such as salt, terrestrial (land) organisms have adaptation to control water (pine tree needles), water organisms must control osmosis (movement of water)C. Temperature – most life between 00C – 500C, too low and metabolisms slow, too high and enzymes denature (lose shape), except for some prokaryotes (deep-sea vents)
8Key Abiotic FactorsD. Soil – product of abiotic forces such as ice, rain, wind. Allows only certain adapted plants to growE. Wind – effects distribution and activity of organisms, Ex: stirs up lakes, pollinates plantsF. Severe Disturbances – fire, hurricane, drought, floods, volcanoes, etc. allow some organisms to adapt Ex: brush growing after a fire
934.2 Climate determines global patterns in the biosphere
10I. Uneven Heating of the Earth’s Surface A. Because of Earth's spherical shape, different locations on Earth's surface receive different amounts of solar energy1.Close to equator – low latitudes, high angle sun rays, absorb more heat, higher temperatures2. Farther from equator – high latitudes, low angle sun rays, reflect more heat, lower temperatures
11Uneven Heating of the Earth’s Surface B. tropics: regions between 23.5ｰ N latitude and 23.5ｰ S latitude; warmest temperature zones on EarthC. polar zones: the regions north of the Arctic Circle (66.5ｰ N) and south of the Antarctic Circle (66.5ｰ S), that receive the smallest amount of direct sunlight year-roundD. temperate zones: latitudes between the tropics and polar regions in each hemisphere (most of the US), moderate
13II. Wind, Precipitation, and Ocean Currents A. Uneven heating causes wind and precipitation. Near the equator more heat means more moisture and rising air, lots of rainfallB. After losing moisture over the equator, dry air spreads from the equator and descends at about 300N and 300S latitudes where most deserts are located.C. Rising, falling air masses and Earth’s Rotation cause predictable wind patterns which combine with the uneven heating of the Earth and the shapes of the continents create currents - riverlike flow pattern within a body of water, circulates water back and forth from poles to equator
15Local & Microclimate III. Local Climate A. Large bodies of water can hold heat and cause stable tempertures. Rock and soil absorb/lose heat quickly. Ex: Great Britain has mild temperaturesB. Mountains causes the temperature to drop as elevation increases (60C every 1000m), also block moisture from the air as it moves across (causes some deserts)IV. MicroclimateA. microclimate: climate in a specific area thatvaries from the surrounding climate region,Ex: organisms thriving under a fallen log
1634.3 Biomes are the major types of terrestrial ecosystems
17I. What is a BiomeA. biome : major type of terrestrial ecosystem that covers a large region of Earth (abiotic and biotic), related to latitude
20II. Tropical ForestA. tropical rain forest: type of forest near the equator that receives as much as 350 cm of rainfall yearly, tall broad-leaved trees create a canopy where little light reaches the groundB. Plants adapt to shade, many mosses and vines grow on treesC. animals are tree-dwellers as well, including monkeys, birds, snakes, and bats.D. Contains 50% of all species, most diverse, Ex: Madagascar, AmazonE. Clearing forests is a conservation problem (mining, lumber, farms)
22III. Savanna A. savanna: grassland with scattered trees; found in tropical regions of Africa, Australia,and South AmericaB. animals, such as zebras, wildebeest, antelope, and, in Australia, kangaroos, as well as numerous insects, also burrowing animals, and predators (lions, cheetahs, etc.)C. Warm climate with alternating wet and dry seasons, droughts are common, animals often migrate
24IV. DesertA. desert: land area that receives less than 30 centimeters of rain per year, temperatures vary greatly, often have less plant life, Ex: Sahara, GobiB. Cactus adapt by storing water, kangaroo rat has a burrow for shade
26V. ChaparralA. chaparral: temperate coastal biome dominated by dense evergreen shrubs, mild, rainy winters, hot, dry summers, brush fire common to climate Ex: Mediterranean, California coastB. Animals of the chaparral include deer, birds, and rodents that feed on the shrubs and their seeds, as well as lizards and snakes.
28VI. Temperate Grassland temperate grassland: biome characterized by deep, nutrient-rich soil that supports many grass species, colder winter than savannah, seasonal droughts, height of vegetation depends on yearly rainfallB. North American grasslands (also known as prairies, Midwest) include grazing mammals such as bison and pronghorns, as well as coyotes, snakes, lizards, worms, arthropods, rodents, and insects.
30VII. Temperate Deciduous Forest A. temperate deciduous forest: forest in a temperate region, characterized by trees that drop their leaves annually, large trees, winters cold, summers hot (parts of Ohio, eastern forests of US)B. deciduous trees such as maples, oaks, beeches, and hickory shed their leaves in autumn, which helps reduce evaporation during the winterC. microorganisms, fungi, and arthropods live in the soil, Mammals found in the temperate deciduous forests of eastern North America include deer, squirrels, chipmunks, foxes, and bears. During the cold winter, many of these animals conserve energy by greatly reducing their activity levels
32VIII. Coniferous Forest A. coniferous forest: forest populated by cone-bearing evergreen trees; mostly found in northern latitudes, northern regions are called taiga, long cold winters, heavy snowfall, Ex: Canada lower latitudesB. conical shape of tree needle (leaf) limits snow from piling on trees, and limits evaporation during dry periodsC. Typical taiga animals include hares, moose, elk, wolves, and bears.
34IX. TundraA. tundra: biome in the Arctic Circle or on high mountaintops, characterized by bitterly cold temperatures and high winds, Ex: Northern Canada, Alaska, Siberia, ArcticB. permafrost: permanently frozen subsoil, shallow topsoil, mosses, lichens, grasses thrive, no large plantsC. Lemmings, caribou, and reindeer eat the tundra ground cover, some animals like the snow owl change color
3534.4 Aquatic ecosystems make up most of the biosphere
36I. Ponds and LakesFreshwater bodies of water with little dissolved salts, Ex: Great lakesphotic zone: regions of a body of water where light penetrates, enabling photosynthesis, lakes are divided into zones by depthC. phytoplankton: microscopic algae and cyanobacteria that carry out photosynthesis in photic zone
37Ponds and Lakes D. aphotic zone: deep areas, no photosynthesis E. benthic zone: bottom of an aquatic ecosystem; consists of sand and sediment and supports its own community of organisms
38II. Streams and RiversA. Flowing freshwater, usually empties to lake or oceanB. near source low in nutrients, cold, major producer is algae, downstream is warmer and larger, supports more life including phytoplanktonC. trout, frogs, worms, insects, etc.
39III. EstuariesA. estuary: area where fresh water from streams and rivers merges with salty ocean water; productive ecosystem, Ex: Chesapeake Bay, parts of FloridaB. have changes in salt concentration and temperature, very productive, lots of nutrients, many fish and birds, crabs, oysters, clams. Etc.
41IV. Ocean ZonesA. Oceans are divided 4 zones based on depth and distance from shoreB. pelagic zone: open water above the ocean floorC. intertidal zone: area of shore between the high-tide and low-tide linesD. neritic zone: area of ocean that extends from the low-tide line out to the edge of the continental shelfE. oceanic zone: vast open ocean from the edge of the continental shelf outward, includes zooplankton: microscopic animals that swim or drift near the surface of aquatic environments
43V. Coral ReefsA. very diverse, like the rainforest of ocean, coral is an animal that builds upon hard, dead external skeletons, can be poisonous, Ex: Great Barrier ReefB. including sponges, sea anemones, worms, sea stars, and mollusks, sea turtles, and fishes
44VI. Deep-sea VentsA. hydrothermal vent: opening in the ocean floor where hot gases and minerals escape from Earth's interior, producers (prokaryotes) use chemical energy (eat sulfur) because of no light, Ex: Mid-Atlantic Ridge