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Biomes and Climate.

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Presentation on theme: "Biomes and Climate."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biomes and Climate

2 Climate Average weather conditions of an area over a long period of time Mainly precipitation and temperatures 3 Climate Zones on Earth 1. Tropical 2. Temperate 3. Polar

3 Natural Factors that affect climate
1. Latitude (distance from the equator)

4 Natural Factors that affect climate
2. Prevailing winds in the Atmosphere

5 Natural Factors that affect climate
3. Mountain formations (topography)

6 Natural Factors that affect climate
4. Large Water Bodies

7 Natural Factors that affect climate
5. Ocean Currents

8 Biomes Region of similar climate Similar plant/animal life

9 Tropical Zone ~ The region that surrounds the equator
~ Receive the most solar radiation ~Temperatures are usually hot, except at high elevations ~ Includes : Tropical Rain Forests Tropical Savannas Tropical Deserts

10 Temperate Zones ~ The climate zone between the Tropics and the polar zone ~ Receive less solar energy than latitudes in the Tropics ~ Temperatures tend to be lower than the Tropics ~Includes: Temperate Forest Temperate Grassland Chaparral Temperate Desert

11 Polar Zone ~The North or South Pole and its surrounding area
~Has the coldest average temperatures (below freezing all winter and cool summers) ~Includes: Tundra Taiga

12 Marine Biomes ~Shaped by abiotic factors – temperature, water depth, amount of sunlight that passes into the water. The largest of all biomes. Water covers ¾ of the Earth ~Organisms of all sizes can be found ~Includes Freshwater Saltwater

13 Freshwater and Saltwater
Freshwater includes: ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, and wetlands Saltwater includes: oceans, coral reefs, estuaries

14 Rain Forest Biome (Tropical)
Temperature: Warm and wet; seasons do not vary Precipitation: Lots of rain (more than 200cm/yr) Soil: Thin and Nutrient Poor Plants/Animals: greatest number of any biome; most diverse place on Earth

15 Savanna (Tropical) Temperature: usually very warm
Precipitation: dry season 4-8 months followed by short periods of rain Soil: nutrient poor (grass fires during the dry season leave the soils nutrient enriched) Plants/Animals: tall grasses, trees, and thorny shrubs, lions, crocodiles and elephants Africa and South America

16 Tropical Desert Biome (Tropical)
Temperature: extremely hot usually with cooler nights Precipitation: driest place on Earth. Soil: poor in organic matter which is needed for plant growth. Plants/Animals: only those that have adapted to live with little water: snakes, rats, plants that are able to store water.

17 Temperate Forest (Temperate)
Temperature: Cool winters; warm summers/mild Precipitation: regular and plenty of it Soil: very fertile and organically rich 1. Deciduous forest (temperate) ~Trees lose leaves ~Lots of animal and plant types 2. Coniferous forest (temperate) ~Tall pine trees, small plants ~Lots of animals

18 Temperate Grassland (Temperate)
Temperatures vary: Winters are cold; Summers are hot Precipitation: seasonal; some regions receive too little rainfall for trees to grow Soil: most fertile soils of all biomes

19 Chaparral (temperate)
Temp: Hot, dry summers; Cool, wet winters Moderate precipitation Low lying plants mostly Rocky/Poor soil

20 Temperate Desert (temperate)
Temperature: Tend to be cold deserts (light snow during the winter) Precipitation: less than 25cm yearly Soil: poor in organic matter These deserts can be hot in the daytime, but they are often VERY cold at night

21 Tundra Biome (Polar) Temperatures are very cold
Short summers with almost 24 hrs of light Long cold winters with almost 24hrs of night Precipitation is very limited Soil is frozen most of the year with only the top layer thawing in the summer

22 Taiga (Polar) Temp: Long cold winters; Short summers
Precipitation is moderate Soil: acidic which most plants cannot grow in. Majority of the trees are evergreen.

23 Microclimates The climate of a small area. Alpine Biome is an example
Mountain tops Above tree line All around world—even in the Tropics!

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