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21.4 Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems

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Presentation on theme: "21.4 Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems"— Presentation transcript:

1 21.4 Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems
What are the six major biomes found on Earth? What factors determine the types of biomes found in an area? What do freshwater and marine ecosystems include?

2 Biomes – Group of land ecosystems with similar climates and organisms
Mostly determine by the climate – temperature and precipitation – in an area

3 Deciduous Forest Biome
WE LIVE HERE!!!! Deciduous Trees – shed their leaves and replace them each year Oaks & Maples 50 cm rain/year Organism adaptions – migrate, hibernate

4 Deciduous Forest Biome
Also called Temperate Forest Moderate temperature and rainfall

5 Tropical Rain Forest At or near the equator Warm & Wet
200 – 400 cm rain/year Forest layers Canopy Understory Abundance of species, especially insects

6 Tropical Rain Forest

7 Tropical Rain Forest

8 Grassland/Savannah Biome
Populated mostly by grasses and other non-woody plants moderate rainfall, 25 to 120 cm rain/year (not enough to support trees) Hot summer, Cold winter Rich fertile soil Also called prairies

9 Grassland Biomes Home to large herbivores - grazers

10 Desert Biome Receives less than 25 cm rain/year Hot days, cold nights
Few plants, cacti Organisms = highly adapted Animals burrow Plants store water

11 Desert Biomes

12 Taiga Biome Boreal Forest Coniferous trees
seeds in cones, needle leaves = spruce, fir Cold winter, mild rainy summer Little water – frozen much of the year

13 Boreal Forest Biome Squirrels, Moose, Wolves
Adaptions = waxy leaves to prevent water loss

14 Tundra Biomes Cold & Dry Less than 25 cm PRECIPITATION/year, snow
Permafrost – some soil remains frozen throughout the year NO trees Spring = covered in moss Summer = grasses

15 Tundra Biome

16 Mountains Have different climates because of their elevation
Top/Peak is colder than base Wet side & dry side because of wind Characteristics of several biomes

17 Freshwater Ecosystems
Includes streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, and wetlands such as swamps, bogs, and marshes

18 Freshwater Ecosystems
Ponds & Lakes – Do not flow over land Lakes = larger, longer lasting Fed by rivers or underground sources Many fish, amphibians, insects, birds nearby

19 Lake Tahoe = Utah 22 miles x 12 miles 2 to 3 million years old
Filled by rivers

20 Freshwater Ecosystems
Rivers and Streams = moving water Change as they move, starts cool and clear and ends warm and murky Adaptions = hooks, suckers to hang on to rocks, swim against currents

21 Freshwater Ecosystems
Wetlands – aquatic and terrestrial Moving and still Some are temporary Always covered to only a few weeks a year Home for many species

22 Marine Ecosystems Oceans – Salty waters
Estuaries – where fresh and saltwater meet Covers over 70% of Earths surface

23 Marine Ecosystem Intertidal Zone – where ocean meets land
Waves, mud, sand, few plants Shorebirds, crabs (burrow)

24 Marine Ecosystems Ocean zones

25 Marine Ecosystem Neritic Zone – Shallow waters Seaweed, Algae
Hiding for small fish, turtle food Coral Reef – in tropical neritic Coral skeleton Octopus, Squid, Turtles

26 Marine Ecosystem Oceanic Zone Benthic Zone Deep Ocean Cold and Dark
Many fish & marine mammals Benthic Zone Just above floor Sponges, sea stars


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