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Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 Chemistry Properties of Solutions

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Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2 Section 16.2 The Composition of Solutions Important to know the Amount of Chemicals present in a Solution.

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Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 Solution Composition 1.Molarity (M) = 2.Mass (weight) percent = 3.Mole fraction ( A ) = 4.Molality (m) =

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Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 Molarity Molarity (M) = moles of solute per volume of solution in liters:

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Molarity Concentration of a solution total combined volume substance being dissolved

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C. Molarity 2M HCl What does this mean?

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C. Molarity Calculations How many grams of NaCl are required to make 0.500L of 0.25M NaCl? 0.500 L soln 0.25 mol NaCl 1 L soln = 7.3 g NaCl =.125 mol NaCl 58.44 g NaCl 1 mol NaCl.125 mol NaCl

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C. Molarity Calculations Find the molarity of a 250 mL solution containing 10.0 g of NaF. 10.0 g NaF 1 mol NaF 41.99 g NaF.238 NaF.25 L soln = 0.95 M NaF =.238 mol NaF

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Percent Composition by Mass Mass of Solute Mass of Solution x100

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Percent by Mass How many moles of solute are contained in 343 grams of a 23% aqueous solution of MgCr 2 O 7 ? 343g of solution 23% 100% 1 mol 240.3 g MgCr 2 O 7 =0.329 mol of MgCr 2 O 7

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Percent Composition by Volume Volume of Solute Volume of Solution x100

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B. Percent by Volume Determine the percent by volume of toluene (C 6 H 5 CH 3 ) in a solution made by mixing 40.0 mL of toluene with 75.0 mL of benzene (C 6 H 6 ). 40.0 mL toluene + 75.0 mL benzene= 115 mL total solution (40.0 mL toluene / 115 mL solution) 100 = 34.8% toluene

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Mole Fraction Moles A Total Moles = Mole Fraction, Χ

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Molality mass of solvent only 1 kg water = 1 L water

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D. Molality Find the molality of a solution containing 75 g of MgCl 2 in 250 mL of water. 75 g MgCl 2 1 mol MgCl 2 95.21 g MgCl 2 = 3.2 m MgCl 2 0.25 kg water

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D. Molality How many grams of NaCl are reqd to make a 1.54m solution using 0.500 kg of water? 0.500 kg water1.54 mol NaCl 1 kg water = 45.0 g NaCl 58.44 g NaCl 1 mol NaCl

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Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 17 Standard Solution Solution whose concentration is accurately known.

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Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 18 Figure 4.10 Preparation of a Standard Solution

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Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 19 Dilution Solutions are often prepared by diluting more concentrated solutions.

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Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 20 Common Terms of Solution Concentration Stock - routinely used solutions prepared in concentrated form. Concentrated - relatively large ratio of solute to solvent. (5.0 M NaCl) Dilute - relatively small ratio of solute to solvent. (0.01 M NaCl)

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Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 21 Solutions by Dilution Moles of solute after dilution EQUALS Moles of solute before dilution M 2 x V 2 = M 1 x V 1

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Dilution What volume of 15.8M HNO 3 is required to make 250 mL of a 6.0M solution? GIVEN: M 1 = 15.8M V 1 = ? M 2 = 6.0M V 2 = 250 mL WORK: M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 (15.8M) V 1 = (6.0M)(250mL) V 1 = 95 mL of 15.8M HNO 3

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Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 23 Figure 4.11 (a) A Measuring Pipet(b) A Volumetric (transfer) Pipet

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CONCENTRATION OF SOLUTIONS. Solute + The amount of solution can be expressed by: - mass m (g, kg) or - volume V (cm 3, mL, dm 3, L, m 3 ) m = V x -

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