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Dem Bones.

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Presentation on theme: "Dem Bones."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dem Bones

2 Bone Histology Bone cells
Osteoblasts Osteocytes Osteoclasts Stem cells or osteochondral progenitor cells Woven bone: collagen fibers randomly oriented Lamellar bone: mature bone in sheets Cancellous bone: trabeculae Compact bone: dense

3 Bone Structure Bones are composed of connective tissue, chemicals, and fats Solid outer layer - compact bone Composed of osteons An inner layer of spongy bone a honeycomb of flat, needle-like projections called trabeculae. Above: Note the relationship btwn the compact and spongy bone. Below: Close up of spongy bone. Bones are organs. Thus, they’re composed of multiple tissue types. Consists of multiple cylindrical structural units known as osteons or haversian systems. Imagine these osteons as weight-bearing pillars that are arranged parallel to one another along the long axis of a compact bone. Trabeculae: interconnecting rods or plates of bone. Like scaffolding. Spaces filled with marrow. Covered with endosteum. Oriented along stress lines

4 Compact Bone Volkmann’s canals Haversian canals
Perpendicular to the haversian canals. Connect the blood and nerve supply in the periosteum to those in the haversian canals and the medullary cavity. Haversian canals allow the passage of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerve fibers. Surrounded by layers of bone called a lamella. osteon Each osteon consists of a single central canal, known as a haversian canal, surrounded by concentric layers of calcified bone matrix. Haversian canals allow the passage of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerve fibers. Each of the concentric matrix “tubes” that surrounds a haversian canal is known as a lamella. All the collagen fibers in a particular lamella run in a single direction, while collagen fibers in adjacent lamellae will run in the opposite direction. This allows bone to better withstand twisting forces. Lying in between intact osteons are incomplete lamellae called interstitial lamellae. These fill the gaps between osteons or are remnants of bone remodeling. Volkmann’s canal: perpendicular to long axis. Both perforating and central canals contain blood vessels. Direct flow of nutrients from vessels through cell processes of osteoblasts and from one cell to the next

5 Note the gross differences between the spongy bone and the compact bone in the above photo.
Do you see the trabeculae? Compare compact and spongy bone as viewed with the light microscope

6 Bone Cells Osteoblasts Ossification Bone building cells
Synthesize and secrete collogen fibers and other organic components of the bone matrix Initiate calcification Found in the periosteum and the endosteum Ossification Formation of bone by osteoblasts. Cells surround themselves by matrix. osteoblasts Osteoblasts Bone-building cells. Synthesize and secrete collagen fibers and other organic components of bone matrix. Initiate the process of calcification. Found in both the periosteum and the endosteum Collagen produced by E.R. and golgi. Released by exocytosis. Precursors of hydroxyapetite stored in vesicles, then released by exocytosis. The blue arrows indicate the osteoblasts. The yellow arrows indicate the bone matrix they’ve just secreted. Bone tissue is a type of connective tissue, so it must consist of cells plus a significant amount of extracellular matrix. Bone matrix

7 Bone Cells Osteocytes. Lacunae Canaliculi Mature bone cells.
Osteoblasts that have become trapped by the secretion of matrix. Responsible for maintaining the bone tissue Lacunae spaces occupied by osteocyte cell body Canaliculi canals that allow for nutrient filled liquid to fill the lacunae Osteoblasts that have matured into osteocytes. Surrounded by matrix, but they can no longer longer secrete matrix. Nutrients diffuse through tiny amount of liquid surrounding cell and filling lacunae and canaliculi. Then can transfer nutrients from one cell to the next through gap junctions.

8 Bone Cells Osteoclasts Cells that ecretes digestive enzymes to digest bone matrix bone resorption Concentrated in the endosteum. On the side of the cell that faces the bone surface, ruffled border. Pumps out hydrogen ions Create an acid environment that eats away at the matrix. Osteoclasts. Huge cells derived from the fusion of as many as 50 monocytes (a type of white blood cell). Resorption of bone which is part of normal bone growth, development, maintenance, and repair. Osteoclasts are found on a Ruffled border: where cell membrane borders bone and resorption is taking place. H ions pumped across membrane, acid forms, eats away bone. Release enzymes that digest the bone. Derived from monocytes (which are formed from stem cells in red bone marrow) Multinucleated and probably arise from fusion of a number of cells

9 Bone Cells Why is there a depression underneath the osteoclast?
What advantage might a ruffled border confer? What is the name of the third cell type shown here? What do you think the tan material represents? Here, we see a cartoon showing all 3 cell types. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are indicated. Note the size of the osteoclast (compare it to the osteoblast), and note the ruffled border.

10 Long Bone Structure Diaphysis - Shaft Epiphysis - End of the bone
Compact bone Epiphysis - End of the bone Cancellous bone Epiphyseal plate - growth plate Hyaline cartilage; present until growth stops Epiphyseal line: bone stops growing in length Medullary cavity: contains marrow In children medullary cavity is red marrow, In adults marrow is yellow in limb bones and skull (except for epiphyses of long bones). Red marrow is found in in the cavities of the spongy bone of flat bones Shaft plus 2 expanded ends. Shaft is known as the diaphysis. Consists of a thick collar of compact bone surrounding a central marrow cavity In adults, the marrow cavity contains fat - yellow bone marrow. Expanded ends are epiphyses Thin layer of compact bone covering an interior of spongy bone. Joint surface of each epiphysis is covered w/ a type of hyaline cartilage known as articular cartilage. It cushions the bone ends and reduces friction during movement.

11 Long Bone Structure Periosteum Endosteum.
Outer is fibrous Inner is single layer of bone cells including osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteochondral progenitor cells connected to bone matrix via Sharpey’s fibers Endosteum. Similar to inner layer of periosteum. Lines all internal spaces The external surface of the entire bone except for the joint surfaces of the epiphyses is covered by a double-layered membrane known as the periosteum. Outer fibrous layer is dense irregular connective tissue. Inner cellular layer contains osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts. Periosteum is richly supplied with nerve fibers, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels. Periosteum is connected to the bone matrix via strong strands of collagen. Internal bone surfaces are covered with a delicate connective tissue membrane known as the endosteum. Covers the trabeculae of spongy bone in the marrow cavities and lines the canals that pass through compact bone. Contains both osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

12 Structure of Bone Microscopic Macroscopic Osteocytes Diaphysis
Lamellae Haversian canals Osteon Volkmann’s canals Lacunae Diaphysis Periosteum Sharpy’s fibers Epiphyses Epiphyseal plate Epiphyseal line Yellow marrow Medullary cavity How do spongy and compact bone look different? What is the anatomical name for the shaft of a long bone? For its ends How does the structure of compact bone differ from the structure of spongy bone when viewed with the naked eye? What is the passageway connecting neighboring osteocytes in an osteon? What is yellow marrow?

13 Bone Matrix Consists of organic and inorganic components.
Organic component are secreted by the osteoblasts: Collagen fibers Elastin Inorganic component Calcium phosphate Calcium hydroxide magnesium, fluoride, & sodium. Three-dimensional array of collagen molecules. The rod-shaped molecules lie in a staggered arrangement which acts as a template for bone mineralization. Bone mineral is laid down in the gaps. Consists mainly of 2 salts: calcium phosphate and calcium hydroxide. Bone matrix. Like reinforced concrete. Rebar is collagen fibers, cement is hydroxyapetite

14 Your BONES and homeostasis

15 Bone Matrix As we age… What if the Calcium phosphate, Calcium hydroxide and the other minerals were removed from this bone? Who knows what osteoperosis is? – loss of calcium in the bones. When does this happen? When we are older. Why does it happen? – we are no longer adding calcium to our bones and we need the calcium in our blood to maintain homeostasis. It has to com from some where so if we don’t eat it it comes from our bones CLICK What happens if we remove the calcium and other minerals from a bone? What did we learn happens to collegen and elastin in our skin as we age? – it breaks down CLICK What would happen if we removed the elastin and collegin from a bone? What if the collagen and elastin were removed from this bone.


17 Bone Development (cont.)
Figure 5.2

18 Cartilage and Ligaments

19 Bone Development Prenatal: cartilage model
Fetus: some conversion to bone Childhood: primary and secondary ossification sites formed Adolescence: cartilage growth plate elongates

20 Mature Bone Remodeling and Repair
Changes in shape, size, strength: Dependent on diet, exercise, age Bone cells regulated by hormones: Parathyroid hormone (PTH): removes calcium from bone Calcitonin: adds calcium to bone Repair: hematoma and callus formation

21 Functions of the Skeletal System
Protection: encases most internal organs Support: allows body positions Permit movement: muscle attachments for movement Mineral reservoir: calcium, phosphorus

22 Joints (Articulations)
Classified by degree of movement: Fibrous joint: immovable (e.g., fontanels) Cartilagenous joint: slightly movable, cartilage connection (e.g., backbone) Synovial joint: freely movable

23 Synovial Joints Figure 5.12a

24 Synovial Joints (cont.)
Joint capsule: synovial membrane + hyaline cartilage Synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid as lubricant Hyaline cartilage cushions

25 Diseases and Disorders of the Skeletal System
Sprains: stretched or torn ligaments Bursitis and tendinitis: inflammations Arthritis: inflammation of joints

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