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Anatomy and Physiology, Sixth Edition

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1 Anatomy and Physiology, Sixth Edition
Rod R. Seeley Idaho State University Trent D. Stephens Idaho State University Philip Tate Phoenix College Chapter 06 Lecture Outline* *See PowerPoint Image Slides for all figures and tables pre-inserted into PowerPoint without notes. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 Skeletal System: Bones and Bone Tissue
Chapter 6 Skeletal System: Bones and Bone Tissue

3 Skeletal System Functions
Support Protection Movement Storage Blood cell production

4 Hyaline Cartilage Consists of specialized cells that produce matrix
Chondroblasts Chondrocytes Perichondrium Articular cartilage Growth Appositional Interstitial

5 Bone Shapes Long Short Flat Irregular Upper and lower limbs
Carpals and tarsals Flat Ribs, sternum, skull, scapulae Irregular Vertebrae, facial

6 Long Bone Structure Diaphysis Epiphysis Epiphyseal plate
Shaft Compact bone Epiphysis End of the bone Cancellous bone Epiphyseal plate Growth plate Epiphyseal line Bone stops growing in length

7 Long Bone Structure Medullary cavity Periosteum Sharpey’s fibers
Red marrow Yellow marrow Periosteum Outer bone surface Sharpey’s fibers Attachment Endosteum Lines bone cavities

8 Flat, Short, Irregular Bones
Flat Bones No diaphyses, epiphyses Sandwich of cancellous between compact bone Short and Irregular Bone Compact bone that surrounds cancellous bone center No diaphyses and not elongated

9 Bone Histology Bone matrix Bone cells
Organic: Collagen and proteoglycans Inorganic: Hydroxapatite Bone cells Osteoblasts Osteocytes Osteoclasts Stem cells or osteochondral progenitor cells Woven bone: Collagen fibers randomly oriented Lamellar bone: Mature bone in sheets Cancellous bone: Trabeculae Compact bone: Dense

10 Bone Matrix

11 Bone Cells Osteoblasts Osteocytes Osteoclasts
Formation of bone through ossification or osteogenesis Osteocytes Mature bone cells Lacunae: Spaces Canaliculi: Canals Osteoclasts Responsible for bone resorption

12 Woven and Lamellar Bone
Woven bone Formed During fetal development During fracture repair Remodeling Removing old bone and adding new Lamellar bone Mature bone in sheets called lamellae

13 Cancellous Bone Consists of trabeculae Oriented along lines of stress

14 Compact Bone Central or haversian canals: Parallel to long axis
Lamellae: Concentric, circumferential, interstitial Osteon or haversian system: Central canal, contents, associated concentric lamellae and osteocytes Perforating or Volkmann’s canal: Perpendicular to long axis

15 Bone Development Intramembranous ossification
Takes place in connective tissue membrane Endochondral ossification Takes place in cartilage Both methods of ossification Produce woven bone that is then remodeled After remodeling, formation cannot be distinguished as one or other

16 Intramembranous Ossification

17 Endochondral Ossification

18 Endochondral Ossification

19 Endochondral Ossification

20 Growth in Bone Length Appositional growth Epiphyseal plate zones
New bone on old bone or cartilage surface Epiphyseal plate zones Resting cartilage Proliferation Hypertrophy Calcification

21 Growth in Bone Length

22 Growth in Bone Width

23 Factors Affecting Bone Growth
Nutrition Vitamin D Necessary for absorption of calcium from intestines Insufficient causes rickets and osteomalacia Vitamin C Necessary for collagen synthesis by osteoblasts Deficiency results in scurvy Hormones Growth hormone from anterior pituitary Thyroid hormone required for growth of all tissues Sex hormones as estrogen and testosterone

24 Bone Remodeling Coverts woven bone into lamellar bone
Bone constantly removed by osteoclasts and new bone formed by osteoblasts

25 Bone Repair

26 Calcium Homeostasis

27 Calcium Homeostasis Bone is the major storage site for calcium in the body Calcium moves into bone as osteoblasts build new bone Calcium moves out of bone as osteoclasts break down bone When osteoclast and osteoblast activity is balanced, the movement of calcium in and out is equal

28 Effects of Aging on Skeletal System
Bone Matrix decreases Bone Mass decreases Increased bone fractures Bone loss causes deformity, loss of height, pain, stiffness Stooped posture Loss of teeth

29 Bone Fractures

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