Presentation on theme: "6-1 Chapter 6 Skeletal System: Bones and Bone Tissue."— Presentation transcript:
6-1 Chapter 6 Skeletal System: Bones and Bone Tissue
6-2 Functions of the Skeletal System Support. Bone is hard and rigid; cartilage is flexible yet strong. Cartilage in nose, external ear, thoracic cage and trachea. Ligaments- bone to bone Protection. Skull around brain; ribs, sternum, vertebrae protect organs of thoracic cavity Movement. Produced by muscles on bones, via tendons. Ligaments allow some movement between bones but prevent excessive movement (joint: formed where two or more bones come together------allows movement between bones) Storage. Ca and P. Stored then released as needed. Fat stored in marrow cavities Blood cell production. Bone marrow that gives rise to blood cells and platelets
6-3 Components of Skeletal System Bone Cartilage: three types –Hyaline –Fibrocartilage –Elastic Tendons and ligaments (Tendons: muscle to bone Ligament: bone to bone)
6-4 Hyaline Cartilage Consists of specialized cells that produce matrix –Chondroblasts: form matrix –Chondrocytes: surrounded by matrix; are lacunae Matrix. Collagen fibers for strength, proteoglycans for resiliency Perichondrium. Double-layered C.T. sheath. Covers cartilage except at articulations –Inner. More delicate, has fewer fibers, contains chondroblasts –Outer. Blood vessels and nerves penetrate. No blood vessels in cartilage itself Articular cartilage. Covers bones at joints; has no perichondrium Growth –Appositional. New chondrocytes and new matrix at the periphery (chondroblasts in perichondrium lay down new matrix & new chondrocytes) –Interstitial. Chondrocytes within the tissue divide and add more matrix between the cells.
6-5 Bone Histology Bone matrix. Like reinforced concrete. Steel bars is collagen fibers, cement is hydroxyapatite –Organic: collagen and proteoglycans (35%) –Inorganic: hydroxyapatite. CaPO 4 crystals (65%) If mineral removed, bone is too bendable If collagen removed, bone is too brittle
6-6 Bone Histology Bone cells –Osteoblasts –Osteocytes –Osteoclasts –Stem cells or osteochondral progenitor cells Woven bone: collagen fibers randomly oriented Lamellar bone: mature bone in sheets Cancellous bone (spongy): contain trabeculae -less bone matrix & more space Compact bone: dense - more bone matrix & less space
6-7 Bone Cells Osteoblasts –Formation of bone through ossification or osteogenesis. Collagen produced by E.R. and golgi. Released by exocytosis. Precursors of hydroxyapetite stored in vesicles, then released by exocytosis. –Ossification: formation of bone by osteoblasts. It occurs by appositional growth on surface of previously existing bone. Osteoblasts communicate through gap junctions. Bone matrix produced by osteoblasts covers the older bone & surrounds osteoblasts results in new layer of bone.
6-8 Bone Cells Osteocytes. Mature bone cells once surrounded by matrix. They are relatively inactive, but can make small amounts of matrix to maintain it. –Lacunae: spaces occupied by osteocyte cell body –Canaliculi: canals occupied by osteocyte cell processes –Nutrients diffuse through tiny amount of liquid surrounding cell and filling lacunae and canaliculi. Then can transfer nutrients from one cell to the next through gap junctions.
6-9 Bone Cells Osteoclasts. Responsible for resorption of bone (breakdown of bone) –Ruffled border (projections) : where cell membrane borders bone and resorption is taking place. –H ions pumped across membrane, acid forms, eats away bone. –Release enzymes that digest the bone. –Derived from monocytes (which are formed from stem cells in red bone marrow) –Multinucleated Stem Cells. Mesenchyme (Osteochondral Progenitor Cells) become chondroblasts or osteoblasts. (Remember: osteocytes derived from osteoblasts)
6-10 Woven and Lamellar Bone Woven bone. Collagen fibers randomly oriented. - first formed during fetal development or repair of fracture - after formation, osteoclasts break down woven bone & osteoblasts build new matrix this process called remodeling Remodeling –Removing old bone and adding new –Woven bone is remodeled into lamellar bone Lamellar bone –Mature bone in sheets called lamellae. Fibers are oriented in one direction in each layer, but in different directions in different layers for strength.
6-11 Cancellous (Spongy) Bone Trabeculae: interconnecting rods or plates of bone. Like scaffolding. –Spaces filled with marrow & blood vessels. –Covered with endosteum. –Oriented along stress lines –Trabeculae consist of several lamellae (thin sheets) w/ osteocytes located in lacunae between them
6-12 Compact Bone Central or Haversian canals: parallel to long axis Lamellae: thin sheets/layers concentric (circles), circumferential (perimeter, periphery), interstitial (between osteon) Osteon or Haversian system: central canal (also called haversian canals------contains blood vessels that run parallel to long axis of bone ), associated concentric lamellae and osteocytes Perforating or Volkmanns canal: perpendicular to long axis. Both perforating and central canals contain blood vessels. Central canals receive blood vessels from perforating canals & nutrients in blood enter central canals, pass into canaliculi, move through osteocytes to osteocytes (by gap junctions). Waste removed in reverse direction.
6-13 Bone Shapes Long –Ex. Upper and lower limbs Short –Ex. Carpals and tarsals Flat –Ex. Ribs, sternum, skull, scapulae Irregular –Ex. Vertebrae, facial
6-14 Structure of a Long Bone Diaphysis –Shaft –Compact bone Epiphysis –End of the bone –Cancellous bone Epiphyseal plate: growth plate (separates epiphysis from diaphysis) –Hyaline cartilage; present until growth stops Epiphyseal line: bone stops growing in length (epiphyseal plate becomes epiphyseal line) Medullary cavity (space) : In children medullary cavity is red marrow, gradually changes to yellow in limb bones and skull (except for epiphyses of long bones). Rest of skeleton is red.
6-15 Structure of a Long Bone, cont. Periosteum –Outer is fibrous (contains blood vessels & nerves) –Inner is single layer of bone cells including osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteochondral progenitor cells –Tendons & ligaments attach to bone & become continuous with fibers of periosteum. –Sharpeys fibers: some collagen fibers of tendons or ligaments penetrate the periosteum and into the bone. Strengthen attachment of tendon or ligaments to bone. Endosteum. Similar to periosteum, but more cellular. Lines all internal surfaces of all cavities including spaces in cancellous bone.
6-16 Structure of Flat, Short, and Irregular Bones Flat Bones –No diaphyses, epiphyses –Sandwich of cancellous between compact bone Short and Irregular Bone –Compact bone that surrounds cancellous bone center; similar to structure of epiphyses of long bones (bec. have processes that possess epiphyseal growth plates –No diaphyses and not elongated Some flat and irregular bones of skull have sinuses (air filled spaces) lined by mucous membranes.
6-17 Bone Development Intramembranous ossification –Takes place in connective tissue membrane Endochondral ossification –Takes place in cartilage Both methods of ossification –Produce woven bone that is then remodeled –After remodeling, formation cannot be distinguished as one or other