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By: Kevin Vohra, Omar Mahmoud, Avi Ahuja

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1 By: Kevin Vohra, Omar Mahmoud, Avi Ahuja
Arab 650 CE – 1800 CE

2 Maps of Islam in Arabic Culture
A Map of the Arabic World A map of Islam in the Arabic World. A Map of Islam in the Arabic World Global map of Islam

3 Examples of Islamic influence in Arabic literature.
The Arabic version of One Thousand and One Nights The Arabic Alphabet. The Qur'an was the one of the first major works of Arabic literature and one of the most influential.

4 Islamic influence in Arabic Art
Detail of the "Baptistère de Saint-Louis." Tin-glazed lust ware was popular in Spain. Pyxis of al-Mughira, Madinat al-Zahra, 968, today in the Louvre.

5 Chronology 670- Arabs make Damascus as the capital of Umayyad capital which made it the center of the Middle East. 674- On the Temple Mount in Jerusalem the Dome of the Rock is completed as a Muslim Shrine 700- Non-Arabs are now allowed to convert to Islam and the reason is because there is a depletion in Muslim armies

6 Chronology Cont. 711- Muslim Arabs go to Spain from North Africa making the Visigoths from Toledo leave their area. 720- The Arabs conquer Narbonne 725- The Arabs conquer Carcassonne 732- Muslim advance to France is stopped when Charles Martel (Charles “The Hammer”) defeats the Arabs at the battle of Tours. 737- Provence is captured by the Arabs

7 Chronology Cont. 750- Abbasids attack the Umayyad's in the Demascus and they form a new caliphate 751- The Arabs score a key victory at the Talas River against the Chinese 752- The Franks get rid of the Arabs in Provence 756- Last member of the Umayyad Dynasty flees back to Spain 762- Abbasid caliph creates Baghdad as the new capital

8 Chronology Cont. 800- Arab merchants travel to China.
822- Abd al Raham II becomes Arab emir of Spain and starts working on the Alcazar of Sevilla 827- Arab Tribe called Saracens invade Sicily 878- Arabs take over Italy and make Parlemo their capital 880- Egypt is taken by the Turks and the Abbasids are kicked out

9 Chronology Cont. 910- Ubaydullah who is a descendent of Ali and Fatima conquers Tunisia and forms the Fatamid dynasty 912- Abd Rahaman III who is the ruler of Spain declares Spain independent 973- Fatamids move their capital to Cairo 1031- Umayyad caliphate falls and Muslim Spain splits into Taifa Kingdoms

10 Chronology Cont. 1092- Hasan ibn al-Sabbah dies and Seliuq empire becomes independent kingdoms in Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Anatolia 1144- Edessa is taken over by the Muslims 1301- Osman founds the Ottoman dynasty 1326- Ottomans take Bursa as their capital 1393- Ottomans conquer Constantinople under Bayazid I. 1413- Temur empires collapse and the Ottomans take back their old territory

11 Chronology Cont. 1465- There is an Arab riot and they massacre more than 1,000 Jews 1526- Hungary Empire is defeated by the Ottomans and is partitioned between by Ottomans and Hapsburgs 1665- Sabbatai Sevi is forced to convert to Islam by Ottomans even though he is seen as the Messiah by the Jews in Palestine 1682- Beginning of 100 year war between Ottomans and Hapsburgs 1729- First book published in Ottoman empire which is also the first book every published in Muslim empire

12 Regional Impact: Spain
Politics After Spain was defeated in the early 8th century, Muslim Caliphates ruled the land. The Islamic army gained control of the Iberian peninsula; however, could not extend through France. The Umayyad Empire rose in power in the 8th century. The Umayyad Caliphate ruled the land as well. Innovation Muslims contributed to various fields of science in is Spain throughout the 8th and 9th century. Muslim migrates spoke Arabic, but on the other hand inhabitants would speak Spanish, Portuguese and French; however, when the inhabitants converted to Islam, they changed to the Arabic language as well. Religion Muslim control over Spain in the 8th century allowed them with tolerance over the Jewish and Christian faith along with its followers. Many Spaniards converted to Islam after witnessing this behavior. Over 700 mosques have been built throughout Spain by the 10th century. By the 11th century, Christian groups retaliated against Muslim leaders because of the threats they posted towards them. Arts & Architecture Under Muslim control in Spain, art was patronized because of the variety of cultures portrayed in the style. Architecture was also improved greatly. Marble was used to build the palaces, libraries, and mosques in Spain. Luxury items such as boxes designed of ivory, statues representing intricate figures and animals, as well as silks were some of the goods manufactured in Spain during this period. Technology Libraries emerged in Cordoba. Manuscripts were used for recording events, politics, and society. Public baths and the invention of the street light emerged in the 10th century in Cordoba. The use of Marble, stucco, ivory, and onyx also emerged in Spain which allowed in the engineering of buildings, libraries, homes, monuments, and mosques. Economy Spain’s economy was trade based, moreover, it was enhanced with the manufacturing of goods and products as well as the production of techniques during the 8th century. Muslims taxed Christians and Jews which resulted in more wealth for the Muslim region. Although s Spain collapsed, Muslims still worked and lived in Spain because of their support to the economy. Society The great city of Cordoba was established by Muslims in the early 8th century and by the 10th century exceeded a population of 500,000 people. During the 11th century, Christian groups evolved that rebelled against Islamic rulers which resulted in tension. Muslims held power up to the 13 century, but then lost power; however, Christians allowed Muslims to live and contribute to their society but they were faced with segregation and discrimination as a result

13 Regional Impact: North Africa
Political The Fatimid dynasty ruled Northern Africa as well as portions of Egypt during this time period. The Fatimid’s rule over Northern declined after they began to become dependent on mercenaries. Military system was based on Kutama Berber tribesmen who aided with the conquest over Egypt. Innovation Jewelry such as rings, pendants, earrings, and necklaces made of gold were worn. Islamic golden age bought several advancements in literature, law, philosophy, science, and even sociology. Religion During the late 600s CE Islam came to Africa specifically in Egypt and later spread rapidly throughout Northern Africa. About a hundred years later, almost the entire population of North Africa was converted to Islam. The leaders of the Fatimid Caliphate (dominated Northern Africa) were Shiite Muslims. Arts & Architecture Religious architecture was introduced to Northern Africa along with the emergence of the monotheistic religion of Islam. Religious monuments such as mosques and madrasas became prominent in Northern Africa. Music became an important tradition in early Northern Africa especially with the drums. They would be played in Islamic centers and play Islamic religious music. Technology Islamic golden age bought several useful technological advancements such as agricultural tools. Navigation was also improved upon during this period to aid with traveling and trade. Economy The economy of Northern Africa is consumed by mostly trade and agriculture, similar to other regions in Africa. Northern Africa’s geographical location proves worthy for trade, having access to mainland trade as well as sea trade. Society The Caliph is the highest class in society and is not only identified as the emperor, but also as the Imam or religious leader. There was a secondary or middle class of merchants and commoners. The third or lowest social class was made up of the slaves.

14 Regional Impact: sub-Saharan Africa
Political There are various African kingdoms; however, each has similar characteristics in their kinships. Ritual isolation is an important similarity among the kinships. Kinships were also similar considering age groupings, division, gender roles, and occupational groupings. Kinships were not hierarchical as well. Innovation Great traditions or cultural heritages shared among educated elites within different regions were prominent at this time in sub-Saharan Africa. Small traditions or a set of customs and beliefs shared by a single society, similar to great traditions. Cultivation by using a hoe and a digging stick was a popular technique in sub-Saharan Africa’s agriculture. Religion Islam spread through Africa and eventually to the sub-Saharan region. The monotheistic religion became the prominent religion in sub-Saharan Africa within a few hundred years of the prophet Muhammad’s death. Arts & Architecture Nubian art has been observed in sub-Saharan Africa as well as art from Nok, a Nigerian culture. Music and playing instruments became prominent as well. Features such as the rhythm of the music made African music so distinct. Music also played an important role in social rituals. For example, people would wear artistic masks and dance to music. Technology Although iron was not invented during this time it was adopted, however. Iron was used to make agricultural tools to aid with agriculture. Economy Sub-Saharan economy is rich from agriculture as well as trade. Agriculture provides a large income for the region. Sub-Saharan trade also occupies a large portion of the income of the region. Society Cultural unity rests in similar characteristics shared by cultures such in other words small traditions. Performed social rituals. There are distinct classes in society: Kings and nobles, commoners, and slaves. Each class had different rights and roles in society.

15 Comparison The spread of Islam had various impacts on North Africa and Spain; however, both resulted in Islamic Caliphates and leaders taking control as well as the spread of Arabic culture throughout both regions. Muslims had control in Spain during the 8th century which allowed them to practice their faith freely, and over time allowed them to gain religious tolerance over Christians and Jews. Islam was introduced to Africa during the 600s and rapidly spread through Northern Africa and after a few centuries later, Almost the entire population of Northern Africa was converted to Islam. In North Africa, the leader or Caliphate was also Muslim (Shiite). Islam allowed for Arabic culture to spread throughout both regions and beyond. In Spain as Muslims rose to power, they could freely spread their culture throughout Spain. Several hundreds of Mosques were built by the 10th century along with numerous madrasas or Islamic schools and Libraries. Islamic art and architecture was also portrayed under their rule over Spain. In North Africa as Islam spread through Africa so did Arabic culture. The Islamic golden age also bought advancements in literature, law, philosophy, science, and sociology. Arabic culture dominated North Africa. For example, music was introduced specifically in the drums. Although both Spain and North Africa were different regions, Arabic culture managed to spread rapidly throughout both regions along with the spread of Islam.

16 Change Over Time At the beginning the Arabs are starting to set up their areas and conquer more land while spreading their religion of Islam Most of Spain is captured by the Spain's and when they try to go deeper into the middle of Europe they kept on getting kicked out. The different Empires start to be broken up into and other new empires like the Ottomans rise up into power. Not really much change in how the Ottomans take power mostly by force and conquering Islam is mainly spread in the middle east and North Africa and these regions have heavy concentrations of Muslims

17 Uses in the Modern World
The development of Arab media today was between the ideological wars between capitalism and communism. The Arabic language can now be classified into three distinct groups: Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, and Colloquial language. Classical Arabic is language of the Qur’an and this is only used for religious purposes. MSA is a version of the classical language but it has been influenced by foreign languages. This is used as the universal language of the Arab world. Colloquial language varies from each country. The majority of Arabs in the world are Muslims.

18 Uses in the Modern World
The Arab world is full of rich and diverse communites, groups, and cultures. Today Sunni Islam dominated most of North Africa. Shia Islam is dominant in southern Iraq, Bahrain, and Lebanon. The Arabic language has various dialects. These vary between the countries. Most Muslims don’t speak Arabic. Instead they only know a few fixed phrases for Islamic prayer. Iraq is the only democracy in the Arab World. Arabic literature is produced in prose and poetry by speakers of the Arabic language.

19 Work Divisions Kevin Vohra: Pictures and Uses in the Modern World.
Avi Ahuja: Chronology and Change Over Time. Omar Mahmoud: PIRATES and Comparison.

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